7/1/2020 UNIT 1 – Section 1.4 – 1.6 Homework-Brian Luth
https://xlitemprod.pearsoncmg.com/api/v1/print/math 1/7
1.
2.
3.
Student: Brian Luth
Date: 07/02/20
Instructor: Robson De Andrade
Course: MAT220_33_Statistics
I_2020_21_TERM1
Assignment: UNIT 1 – Section 1.4 – 1.6
Homework
Which sampling method does not require a frame?
Choose the correct answer below.
A. Stratified
B. Simple random
C. Systematic
D. Cluster
E. All of the above sampling methods require a frame
Determine whether the following statement is true or false. Explain.
When obtaining a stratified sample, the number of individuals included within each stratum must be equal.
Choose the correct answer below.
A. False. A stratified sample is constructed by successively selecting a stratum at random and
then selecting a random individual from within that stratum. With this process, it is unlikely that
all strata will be sampled from the same number of times.
B. False. When taking a stratified sample, a simple random sample is drawn from one stratum at
random. All other strata will not be included in the sample.
C. False. Within stratified samples, the number of individuals sampled from each stratum should
be proportional to the size of the strata in the population.
D. True. Sampling the same number of people from each stratum will result in a sample that is
representative of the population at a lower cost than a simple random sample.
To estimate the percentage of defects in a recent manufacturing batch, a quality control manager at selects
every th that comes off the assembly line starting with the until she obtains a sample of
.
General Electric
15 refrigerator seventh 30
refrigerators
What type of sampling is used?
A. Systematic
B. Cluster
C. Simple random
D. Stratified
E. Convenience
7/1/2020 UNIT 1 – Section 1.4 – 1.6 Homework-Brian Luth
https://xlitemprod.pearsoncmg.com/api/v1/print/math 2/7
4.
5.
6.
7.
To determine customer opinion of their , randomly selects during a certain week and
surveys all .
safety features Toyota 120 dealerships
customers visiting the dealerships
What type of sampling is used?
A. Convenience
B. Cluster
C. Systematic
D. Stratified
E. Simple random
wants to administer a satisfaction survey to its current customers. Using their customer database, the company
randomly selects customers and asks them about their level of satisfaction with the company.
IBM
50
What type of sampling is used?
A. Convenience
B. Simple random
C. Stratified
D. Cluster
E. Systematic
A club wants to sponsor a panel discussion on an upcoming
election. The club wants to have four of its members lead the
panel discussion. To be fair, however, the panel should
consist of two members of each party. Below is a list of
members in each party. Obtain a stratified sample of two
people from party 1 and two from party 2.
Party 1 Party 2
Bolden Nolan Cooper Ochs
Carter Pawlak Engler Rice
Haydra Tate Keating Thomas
Lukens Wright May Weber
Which of the following is a possible list of club members to
lead the panel discussion?
A. Pawlak, Nolan, Wright, Cooper
B. Pawlak, Nolan, Wright, Carter
C. Cooper, Keating, May, Pawlak
D. Cooper, Keating, May, Rice
E. Pawlak, Nolan, Cooper, Keating
The human resource department at a certain company wants to conduct a survey regarding worker benefits. The
department has an alphabetical list of all employees at the company and wants to conduct a systematic sample of size
.
7707
70
(a) What is k?
k =
(b) Determine the individuals who will be administered the survey. Randomly select a number from 1 to k. Suppose that
we randomly select . Starting with the first individual selected, the individuals in the survey will be ,
, …, .
15
7/1/2020 UNIT 1 – Section 1.4 – 1.6 Homework-Brian Luth
https://xlitemprod.pearsoncmg.com/api/v1/print/math 3/7
8.
9.
For a poll of voters regarding a referendum calling for a national , design a sampling method to
obtain the inviduals in the sample. Be sure to support your choice.
renewable energy incentive
Which sampling method would most likely be used in a poll of voters regarding a referendum calling for a national
renewable energy incentive?
A. Use stratified random sampling. Since this is a national issue, different geographical locations
are likely to have similar views.
B. Use simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is always the best sampling method to
choose regardless of the survey conducted.
C. Use convenience sampling. A large number of voters is needed to accurately reflect the
nation’s voters; so a quick way to collect information is needed.
D. Use cluster sampling. Each geographical region can be treated as a mini-population because
voting results are independent of region.
E. Use systematic random sampling. By varying the k-value, a sampling of the whole nation can
be selected to achieve the needed accuracy.
What is a closed question? What is an open question? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type of question.
What is a closed question? What is an open question?
A. A closed question always has yes or no answers, whereas an open question is a
free-response question.
B. A closed question has many correct answers, whereas an open question has only one correct
answer.
C. A closed question has fixed choices for answers, whereas an open question is a
free-response question.
D. A closed question is a free-response question, whereas an open question has fixed choices
for answers.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type of question.
A. Closed questions are harder to analyze, because they limit the responses. Open questions
allow respondents to state exactly how they feel, but are easier to analyze due to the variety
of answers.
B. Closed questions allow respondents to state exactly how they feel, but are harder to analyze
due to the variety of answers and possible misinterpretation of answers. Open questions are
easier to analyze, but limit the responses.
C. Closed questions are easier to analyze, but limit the responses. Open questions allow
respondents to state exactly how they feel, but are harder to analyze due to the variety of
answers and possible misinterpretation of answers.
D. Closed questions are easier to analyze, because they usually gather more accurate data.
Open questions limit the responses, but are harder to analyze since not every viewpoint will
be covered.
7/1/2020 UNIT 1 – Section 1.4 – 1.6 Homework-Brian Luth
https://xlitemprod.pearsoncmg.com/api/v1/print/math 4/7
10.
11.
The following survey has bias.
(a) Determine the type of bias.
(b) Suggest a remedy.
Suppose a survey regarding the sleeping habits of students is being conducted. From a list of
registered students, a researcher obtains a simple random sample of 150 students. One survey
question is “How much sleep do you get?”
(a) What is the type of bias?
Nonresponse bias
Response bias
Sampling bias
(b) What is a possible remedy?
Use systematic random sampling.
Reword the question.
Conduct face-to-face or telephone interviews.
A poll is being conducted
to obtain a sample of the population of an entire country. What is the frame for this
type of sampling? Who would be excluded from the survey and how might this affect the results of the survey?
using random digit dialing, which means a computer randomly
generates phone numbers of landlines
What is the frame for this type of sampling?
A. The frame is people who like to talk on the phone.
B. The frame is anyone with a landline phone.
C. The frame is people who are home during the day.
D. The frame is the entire population of the country.
Who would be excluded from the survey and how might this affect the results of the survey?
A.
This could result in sampling bias due to
undercoverage.
Any household without a landline phone, households on the do not call registry,
and homeless individuals are excluded.
B. is excluded. This could result in sampling
bias due to undercoverage.
Any person that does not like to talk on the phone
C.
This could result in nonresponse bias due to people
not participating in the poll.
Any household without a landline phone, households on the do not call registry,
and homeless individuals are excluded.
D. There is nobody that is being excluded from the survey.
7/1/2020 UNIT 1 – Section 1.4 – 1.6 Homework-Brian Luth
https://xlitemprod.pearsoncmg.com/api/v1/print/math 5/7
12.
13.
Why is it rare for frames to be completely accurate?
Choose the correct answer below.
A. It is rare for frames to be accurate because individuals that were selected to be in the sample
do not always respond to the survey, which can create nonresponse bias.
B. It is rare for frames to be accurate because large sample sizes used in frames almost always
result in data-entry errors.
C. It is rare for frames to be accurate because frames are obtained in a way that causes the
sample to favor one part of the population over another.
D. It is rare for frames to be accurate because frames are obtained periodically, whereas
populations are constantly changing.
What are some solutions to nonresponse?
Select all that apply.
A. reduce interview error B. change wording of questions
C. use cluster sampling D. reduce undercoverage
E. use convenience sampling F. use stratified sampling
G. offer rewards and incentives H. attempt callbacks
7/1/2020 UNIT 1 – Section 1.4 – 1.6 Homework-Brian Luth
https://xlitemprod.pearsoncmg.com/api/v1/print/math 6/7
14. Define the following terms.
(a) Experimental unit (d) Factor
(b) Treatment (e) Placebo
(c) Response variable (f) Confounding
(a) Define experimental unit. Choose the correct answer below.
A. The quantitative or qualitative variable for which the experimenter wishes to determine how
its value is affected by the explanatory variable
B. A person, object, or some other well-defined item upon which a treatment is applied
C. Any combination of the values of the factors (explanatory variables)
D. An innocuous medication, such as a sugar tablet, that looks, tastes, and smells like the
experimental medication
(b) Define treatment. Choose the correct answer below.
A. The number of individuals in the experiment
B. Any combination of the values of the factors (explanatory variables)
C. The quantitative or qualitative variable for which the experimenter wishes to determine how
its value is affected by the explanatory variable
D. A controlled study to determine the effect varying one or more explanatory variables or
factors has on a response variable
(c) Define response variable. Choose the correct answer below.
A. An innocuous medication, such as a sugar tablet, that looks, tastes, and smells like the
experimental medication
B. The effect of two factors (explanatory variables on the response variable) cannot be
distinguished.
C. The variable whose effect on the response variable is to be assessed by the experimenter
D. The quantitative or qualitative variable for which the experimenter wishes to determine how
its value is affected by the explanatory variable
(d) Define factor. Choose the correct answer below.
A. An innocuous medication, such as a sugar tablet, that looks, tastes, and smells like the
experimental medication
B. A controlled study to determine the effect varying one or more explanatory variables or
factors has on a response variable
C. Grouping together similar experimental units
D. A variable whose effect on the response variable is to be assessed by the experimenter
(e) Define placebo. Choose the correct answer below.
A. An innocuous medication, such as a sugar tablet, that looks, tastes, and smells like the
experimental medication
B. A controlled study to determine the effect varying one or more explanatory variables or
factors has on a response variable
C. Grouping together similar experimental units
D. Using treatments on many experimental units
(f) Define confounding. Choose the correct answer below.
7/1/2020 UNIT 1 – Section 1.4 – 1.6 Homework-Brian Luth
https://xlitemprod.pearsoncmg.com/api/v1/print/math 7/7
15.
A. Using treatments on many experimental units
B. The effect of two factors (explanatory variables on the response variable) cannot be
distinguished.
C. A controlled study to determine the effect varying one or more explanatory variables or
factors has on a response variable
D. Grouping together similar experimental units
Explain the difference between a single-blind and a double-blind experiment.
Choose the correct answer below.
A. In a single-blind experiment, there is a control group. In a double-blind experiment, there is
both a control group and a placebo treatment is used.
B. In a single-blind experiment, the subject does not know which treatment is received. In a
double-blind experiment, neither the subject nor the researcher in contact with the subject
knows which treatment is received.
C. A single blind experiment is one in which each experimental unit is randomly assigned to a
treatment. A double-blind experiment is one in which similar experimental units are grouped
together and the experimental units within each block are randomly assigned to treatments.
D. In a single-blind experiment, the researcher does not know what the response variable is. In
a double-blind experiment, neither the subject nor the researcher knows what the response
variable is.

Posted in Blog

7/2/2020 Week 3 – Assignment
https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/67489/assignments/1345587?module_item_id=3417585 1/2
Inventory
[WLOs: 1] [CLOs: 1, 2]
Using the appropriate tools and given information (e.g., formulas, Excel, etc.) complete the parts for
the two problems below. The answers can be included in the same document as the calculations. APA
formatting is not required.
3A – The following table contains figures on the monthly volume and unit costs for a random sample
of 16 items from a list of 2,000 inventory items at a health care facility.
Develop an A-B-C classification for these items.
Item Unit Cost Usage Item Unit Cost Usage
K34 $10 200 F99 $20 60
K35 25 600 D45 10 550
K36 36 150 D48 12 90
M10 16 25 D52 15 110
M20 20 80 D57 40 120
Z45 80 200 N08 30 40
F14 20 300 P05 16 500
F95 30 800 P09 10 30
Given the monthly usages in the following table, classify the items in A, B, and C categories
according to dollar usage.
Item Usage Unit Cost
4021 90 $1,400
9402 300 12
4066 30 700
6500 150 20
7/2/2020 Week 3 – Assignment
https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/67489/assignments/1345587?module_item_id=3417585 2/2
9280 10 1,020
4050 80 140
6850 2,000 10
3010 400 20
4400 5,000 5
Determine the percentage of items in each category and the annual dollar value for each category
for part B.
3B – A bakery buys flour in 25-pound bags. The bakery uses 1,215 bags per year. Ordering cost is $10
per order. Annual carrying cost is $75 per bag.
Determine the economic order quantity.
What is the average number of bags on hand?
How many orders per year will there be?
Compute the total cost of ordering and carrying flour.
If holding costs were to increase by $9 per year, how much would that affect the minimum total
annual cost?

——–

7/2/2020 Week 2 – Assignment
https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/67489/assignments/1345586?module_item_id=3417580 1/3
Week 2 – Assignment
Due Jun 29 by 11:59pm Points 10 Submitting an external tool
Line Balancing
[WLOs: 2, 3] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3,]
Assume a producer of Inkjet Printers is planning to add a new line of printers, and you have been
asked to balance the process given the task times and precedence relationships in the chart below.
Assume that cycle time is to be the minimum possible. In five slides or less (not including title or
reference slides), present your strategy and results using a PowerPoint presentation. Use the
Notes area to type any portion that will be spoken as the audio portion.
You may wish to include visual enhancements in your presentation. Students may wish to use the
Where to Get Free (and legal) Images
(https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/5618416c-a94d-4ad6-948d89fe46c74674/1/MSCJ%20Where%20to%20Get%20Free%20Images.pdf) guide for assistance with
accessing freely available public domain and/or Creative Commons licensed images. It is
recommended that you access Garr Reynolds’ Top Ten Slide Tips
(http://www.garrreynolds.com/preso-tips/design/) and Simple Rules for Better PowerPoint
Presentations (http://www.gcflearnfree.org/powerpoint-tips/simple-rules-for-better-powerpointpresentations) web pages that provide useful assistance with creating successful PowerPoint
presentations.
Task
Length
(minutes)
Immediate
(Predecessor)
a 0.2 –
b 0.4 a
c 0.3 –
d 1.3 b, c
e 0.1 –
7/2/2020 Week 2 – Assignment
https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/67489/assignments/1345586?module_item_id=3417580 2/3
This tool needs to be loaded in a new browser window
f 0.8 e
g 0.3 d, f
h 1.2 g
Carefully review the Grading Rubric
(http://ashford.waypointoutcomes.com/assessment/21783/preview) for the criteria that will be used to
evaluate your assignment.
Waypoint Assignment
Submission
The assignments in this course will be submitted to Waypoint. Please refer to the instructions
below to submit your assignment.
1. Click on the Assignment Submission button below. The Waypoint “Student Dashboard” will
open in a new browser window.
2. Browse for your assignment.
3. Click Upload.
4. Confirm that your assignment was successfully submitted by viewing the appropriate week’s
assignment tab in Waypoint.
For more detailed instructions, refer to the Waypoint Tutorial
(https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/dc358708-3d2b-41a6-a000-
ff53b3cc3794/1/Waypoint%20Tutorial.pdf)
(https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/dc358708-3d2b-41a6-a000-
ff53b3cc3794/1/Waypoint%20Tutorial.pdf) .
The session for this tool has expired. Please reload the page to access the tool again
7/2/2020 Week 2 – Assignment
https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/67489/assignments/1345586?module_item_id=3417580 3/3

Posted in Blog

Story of Change and Story of Solutions

1. From the Story of Change, how could Gandhi and the Civil Rights Movement influence current environmental movements?
The current environmental movements can be influenced through applying Gandhi’s idea that one should be the change instead of waiting for change from other people. There are three concepts that current movements can use to promote change. The first concept entails sharing big ideas with others without discrimination, as whenever people come together that is when they realize the change that they wanted. Working together towards solving a problem is the second concept that can be applied to influence environmental change. The third concept that the environmental movements need to adopt is taking an action towards changing the way they treat the environment.
2. From the Story of Solutions, how does the author describe the GDP? What is it, and how is it related to environmental issues?
The author describes GDP as the ultimate goal that is realized when people’s aim is towards spending more goods and services that either makes life better or worse for human survival. It is evident that GDP is related to some environmental issues as it makes people use a lot of resources in their struggle to achieve a higher GDP and this is what makes them use more of the hazardous ecological products such as chemically toxic products and plastics, thus polluting the environment.
3. What is a “sharing economy”? How does a “cooperative’s function differently than most businesses?
“Sharing economy” is the collaborative consumption where people can borrow goods instead of buying and thus making access to such goods easier for everyone. The fact that whenever the shared solutions of a cooperative face the risk of being taken up by companies with might, citizens can come up to fight for the real democracy, is what makes a cooperative function differently from other firms. Also, when people come together, they can know their common goal and give the people power that opens their eyes to the truth and lessen the wealth gap between citizens.

Posted in Blog

Title: Why Schools Should Not Cut Sports Program
According to Gutman and Dan, a sport is any human physical activity that is capable of achieving an outcome requiring physical skill that by nature is competitive and unanimously accepted as a sport (45). Sports can also be said to be any activity that involves physical skills that are controlled by set rules and is in most cases competitively undertaken. Therefore, a sport must have the characteristic of being a human activity, be governed by set rules, be undertaken competitively and be capable of achieving some outcome for it to qualify as a result. There are a number of sports that are undertaken in schools such as football, basketball, netball, and athletics among others. Sports are very important for every institution of learning and should not be abandoned as it has numerous advantages to the students and other educational sports stakeholders.
Due to the advancement in technology, physical movement and effort are minimal because all that we need is always a click away. With this, people are living a very sedentary lifestyle that is very unhealthy. Also, in this era where academic qualifications such as possession of a degree and cut off points define people, physical fitness has been given little attention. With high levels of concentration on studies and giving a little time on physical fitness may not lead to a lifetime satisfaction. The phrase “Too much work without play makes Jack a dull boy” makes sporting activities acceptable to everybody as an appropriate way of leading a healthy lifestyle and therefore cannot be abandoned in learning institutions.
Among the many advantages of sports is that it offers the student a number of personal, health and social advantages that include the development of the student’s skills, team self-esteem as well as increased relationship opportunities. It is noted by the University of Missouri Health system that playing sports contribute to healthy bones as well as reducing the risks of getting infected with breast cancer. Other sports such as soccer involve high amounts of aerobic exercise as well as reducing the amount of idle time at the disposal of the young students that often lead them to bad companies of peers and also relief them of stress. Also, team sports like basketball and, soccer help the students develop teamwork skills that are very crucial in many careers and organizations that need people who can communicate with other employees through challenges and keep focused on their shared organizational goals. The other reason why sports have to be upheld in schools is that sports whether recreational or organized help the participants build a relationship that they would not have had built if they never participated in sports since the students hang out with others and become good friends. Additionally, some students who participate in recreational sports, develop bonds with community members as well as co-workers that lead to social opportunities that go beyond the sporting activities.
As stated by Maniam and Vegneskumar, sports also help the students to have the feeling of one being alive as the brain part that is responsible for the muscular activity and co-ordination is close to that brain part that deals with feeling and thinking (57). It is obvious that these two parts have the power of influencing the other through neurotransmission and therefore the more one is physically active through sports, the more one feels alive as the feeling of scoring a goal, winning a trophy and conceding defeat in sports gives the student a sense of being alive. As stated earlier, sports help promote self-confidence by having the ability to learn something and achieving something worthwhile in sports makes the living experience enjoyable. When a student is self-confident, a particular charm is added to his or her personality thus helping the individual in his or her daily undertakings as whatever one wants to do in life, unless he or she is confident with him or herself and abilities then every aspect of life would not be worth.
With stress becoming an integrated part of life, stress that is associated with health, education, career, and ambitions has become more popular than ever before. With such a lifestyle that students have to adhere to, then they find themselves in some sort of stress that sports can offer a good gateway to eradicate stress and the problems it can pose to their health. When one I regularly involved in sports, he or she release the stress and other life negativities of life in a very positive manner. This makes the stress hormone adrenaline to be converted into energy and then used up in the sporting activities. Additionally, whenever students get involved in sports, their brain secretes a hormone endorphins that help the body in dealing with stress and pain thus giving them a healthy sense of well-being that is important for their growth.
Another indispensable advantage of sporting activities in schools is that they help build both physical and mental strength that is very important for survival. Every time students are involved in sports, they flex and exercise their muscles by use of muscular strength. On the other hand, when people strategize on winning a sporting activity and work towards it, they make use of muscular strength as well as their mental strength over and over again. Therefore, when students practice both their physical and mental abilities in sports, they are at a better position of using the abilities better in future. Also, sporting activities increases one’s speed in his or her day to day undertakings so as to keep up with the fast pace of the world. The ability to move around, making decisions and thinking in a faster manner is very vital in today’s world and sporting helps the students practice these skills on the playground.
With the many physical and mental health advantages portrayed in sports, it is suicidal to scrap sporting activities from the school programs as the advantages got from this activities will no longer be available to the students. Therefore, it is important for institutions of learning to encourage and support sporting activities in their respective schools so that they can produce an all way fit students.

References
Gutman, Dan. Sports. 2016.
Maniam, Vegneskumar. Sports Participation and Cultural Identity in the Experience of Young People. 2014.

Posted in Blog

The Contemporary Spain

Democracy means the government of the people by definition. The transition to democracy in Spain can be said to be the restoration of democracy in Spain. There are four common factors that can be attributed to the restoration of democracy in Spain. The first factor that led to the restoration of democracy in Spain was the death of Francisco Franco in the year 1975 who was both a military and a political leader of Spain from the year 1939 to 1975 when he died. He used the dictatorial form of governance in the country and his death gave space for democracy to be restored in the country (Amell, 1990). The second factor was the adoption of the Spanish constitution of 1978 which advocated for a democratic form of governance. Thirdly, the failure of the attempted coup on the 23rd of February 1978 also supported the restoration of democracy. The last factor that can be attributed to the restoration of democracy in Spain was the victory of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) on the 28th of October 1978. This led to the election of a government of choice by the people of Spain. This restoration of democracy came about with some benefits to the nation such as enabling Spain to join the European Union and the NATO.
Despite the presence of many Spaniards who are not monarchists, king Joan Carlos is supported and respected throughout Spain because he is not only a king of monarchists of Spain but he is a symbol representing the embodiment of the Spanish state and also he is a symbol of the countries enduring unity and permanence hence he has to be respected by anyone who claims to be from patriotic to the country not regarding whether he or she is a monarchist or not.
After the death of Francisco Franco in the year 1975, a constitutional monarchy was adopted in Spain, giving the king of Spain the symbolic functions instead of the executive powers. The constitution also gave the people the right to elect the representatives in the Cortes Generales which comprise of congress of deputies and the senate whose major role is legislative. The congress of deputies anoints the president of the government who directs the executive. The judges also are relied upon on matters of judicial powers and the constitutional court was put in place to ensure that all laws made are constitutional. This led to the growth of democracy in Spain unlike during the reign of Francisco Franco.
Since the death of Franco, Spain has undergone several economic, social, cultural and economic changes. Spain’s economy has grown to be one of the largest economies in Europe and has contributed many multinational companies in the world. Also, Spain has grown to be one of the world’s socially progressive country by legalizing the marriage of same-sex couples in the 2005 and the introduction of fast-track divorce where couples were not supposed to undergo long processes so as to separate. Culturally, the society in Spain has become more secular and is less influenced by the Roman Catholic unlike in the reign of Francisco who used it as a major pillar of his regime. On the political side, Spain has changed in a big way by the degeneration of key governance institutions like the judiciary that were compelled during the Francisco Franco era. Other bodies such as the regulatory body and the court of auditors have also degenerated after the death of Francisco Franco.
The Spanish history has been changed by the army, religion and also their culture. The shaping of the present Spain has been made possible by the role played by these three aspects. The attempted coup by the army in the year 1978 led to the adoption of a democratic monarchy in the nation since it supported the restoration of democracy. The aspect of their society become more secular and less affected by the roman catholic has also led to the legalization of marriage between people of same sex thus giving every person the freedom to choose what he or she feels is good to him or her. The change in their cultures where women have been allowed to take up roles like those of their male counterparts has led to the growth of their economy since everyone has taken a role in building the society.
Since the death of Francisco, social values have changed tremendously with the lifting of the ban on the sale of contraceptives to women and also sex education started being offered in schools. Women started being treated equally as men and would be inculcated into the workforce, unlike the past where they just served the role of just wives. The church has also changed from the times it was used to control all the values of the Spanish people to today where the society has become secularized with laws such as abortion and the same-sex marriage being passed which are against the church vices.
As illustrated in the pictures, women in the twelfth century in Spain were regarded as just housewives and could not hold any elective or appointive positions in the government of Spain. In the 20th century, women started to occupy posts in the workforces and they have been regarded as equals to men today with some like Carme Chacón holding superior posts in the government like the sensitive defense minister dockets. This shows that women can do whatever man can do.

References
Amell, S. (1990). Literature, the arts, and democracy: Spain in the eighties. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

Posted in Blog

Retirement Benefits

1. Discuss the legal requirements involved in retirement benefits including the content and responsibilities of the employee retirement income security act.
In 1974, an employee retirement income security act (ERISA) was enacted in the US. The act was enacted due to the widespread criticism of the existing pension plans. The retirement benefit was bound by a number of legal requirements for the smooth running of the subsequent plans. The purpose of the act was to ensure that private pension plans met the set minimum standards to avoid their failure and also required the plans to periodically provide participants with the information about the retirement pension plans such as funding, benefit accrual amounts and vesting. The scheme also gave participants the rights to file lawsuits against those who violated the laws.
The retirement plans in the US were bound by a number of laws that had to be followed. First of all, the employees could not be coaxed to retire at a given age. This was in line with the 1986 amendment to the age discrimination in employment act (ADEA). The other legal requirement of the retirement benefit plans was that the “normal retirement” in many employers was supposed to be the age at which an employee could retire and receive full pension benefits. However, many retirement benefits were to provide for early retirement that allowed workers to retire before the normal retirement age of 65 years. There were also phased retirements that acted as alternatives used by firms where employees were allowed to bridge between the time for working or retiring full time as they offered the firm the chance to have their skill and knowledge expertise at the workplace.
Another amendment that is the older workers benefit protection act (OWBPA) was enacted in the year 1990 to the ADEA that required for equal treatment for the elder workers in their early retirements or on severance situations. The amendment also set specific standards that had to be met if the older workers were to sign exceptions promising not to sue the firm for age discrimination in the exchange for the severance benefits.
The health sector was not left behind in providing care to the retirees and the workforce. This led to the enactment of the Patient protection and affordable care act (PPACA) to provide for the significant altering of the employers in the process of providing essential benefits. The act had a number of provisions that included the requirement for most individuals in the US to maintain essential coverage or pay a penalty. It also required those companies that had more than 50 employees working for more than 30 hours a week to offer their employees a health care benefit or risk paying a penalty. The act also was instrumental in extending the dependent age to 26 years. The act also restricted insurance companies from setting up rates based on the health status of an individual or the medical condition of a person among other health-related factors. Finally, the act also provided for state-run health care exchanges where insurance companies were obliged with offering competitive health plans among other requirements.
2. Discuss how benefits impact human resource management.
Employee benefits are non-wage compensation that is offered by the employer to the employees as an addition to their normal wages or salaries. The benefits may include, health insurance, vocational leaves, retirement benefits, disability income protection among others. Although the benefits may be expensive to the employer, there exist many human resource management related benefits that the employer benefits from the provisions.
First, the benefits help the employer find and retain his highly qualified staffs who continue providing their services to the firm. The benefits also help the employer in handling high-risk coverage at low costs that help in reducing the company’s financial burden. These benefits also help improve the output of the company because the employees are more effective since they are assured of their job security. The premiums are also tax deductible as the company’s expenses thus helping the organization to save.
On the side of the employees, the benefits have a variety of advantages as the employees get a peace of mind which leads to increased productivity and satisfaction due to the assurance of protection of themselves and also their families. This will help motivate the employees to work more and improve the output that the company is producing. Also, the employees will not be afraid of job loss as the company has assured them thus they will be able to deliver their best.
The benefits also help those employees with personal life and disability to be protected by offering income replacement in case of serious illness or disability. This is because some workers who are disabled tend to suffer from illnesses regularly thus skipping job days. The benefits will allow the employees to have a piece of mind as they are paid even in the event of absenteeism and when on duty they can work effectively. The employees also are able to feel a sense of pride of their employer when contented with the benefits they get. This sense of pride helps the employees to have a sense of belonging to the organization and can work better than when the employees feel that they are doing something that they are pushed to do. Work that is done better when the employees feel as part of the work than when they are forced to work as the employees seem not to be willing to work.

Posted in Blog

The lady of Auxerre
The Louvre monograph media was used to give a journalistic allure to the artifact. This artifact was sculptured and built in an old sculpture where it was sculptured bearing the traces of the polychrome decoration that was common with the Greeks in the 7th century (Donohue, 23). It is also important to note that the Louvre monograph media, as well as its sculptural nature made of yellow limestone with Greek decorations as seen in the Sculpture images used, was a typical one as it was the only way that the artifact would have been identified and brought to the people.
The sculpture has been assigned by researchers of being from the Crete because of the draping characteristic of her gown as well as due to the limestone she is made of. Tools such as the chisels, riffles as well as rasps have been used to streamline the artifact so as to give it a finer look. The face of the lady appears to be triangular in shape despite half of her face having fallen and therefore this brings the elements of geometric technique in sculpturing it. Also, the shape of her body shows that the carving technique was used predominantly as some materials in her body seems to have been removed and other material added. Another technique applied in this sculpture is the lost wax bronze casting which involved pouring hot metal wax to create the fine body shape as well as her hair.
According to Shuster and George, it is believed that the primary purpose of the creation of the lady of Auxerre artifact was to resemble the Greek goddess and served as a votary instead of a virgin goddess Persephore (p65). The object was not able to serve the purpose as it acted as a votary instead of its original purpose of resembling the virgin goddess Persephore. The lady of Auxerre sculpture was found in the storeroom of the Auxerre Museum. This artifact is believed to have been created in the 17 century by an unknown individual and later brought to light by in the year 1907 by Maxime Collignon.
Today the sculpture is found at the Louvre museum in Paris something that alters its original purpose of acting as a Greek goddess. Today it can only be viewed under lighted galleries where one is not expected to touch it or even worship it. Therefore, this makes the original, and current conditions that it is viewed at the Louvre museum differ significantly as it is opposed to the religious purposes of the sculpture. Also, the meaning it served as a votary varies with the way it is viewed from far where one cannot even have a good look at it to see a sample of a healthy skin like in the ancient times.
In conclusion, it is important to note that this artifact was such an exciting artwork as it not only captured the cultural lives of the people then but also their religious aspect of life. This is different from the earlier sculptures as it makes use of a number of sculpturing techniques to come up with a finer artifact. This artwork has is really important as it used different sculpturing as compared to the earlier artifacts thus coming up with a finer sculpture.

Works Cited
Donohue, A A. Greek Sculpture and the Problem of Description. Cambridge UP, 2005.
Sculpture, I. Statuette of a Woman, Called the Lady of Auxerre. n.d..
Shuster, George N. The World’s Great Catholic Literature. Halcyon House, 1947.

Posted in Blog

Cement and Concrete Production

Abstract
Despite concrete and cement being significant materials that continue to fulfill housing and infrastructural activities all around the world in the construction of buildings, bridges, roads, as well as other structures, sustainability is vital to the well-being of our planet. In the year 2006, manufacturing of cement rose to a total of 2.55 billion tons, and this value is anticipated to rise to 3.744 billion tons by the year 2050 (Agbeyangi, 2012). Therefore, it is crucial for us to realize the toxic effects that cement and concrete production pose to our environment. Thus, this aspect of recognizing the dangers of cement and concrete production brings out the purpose of this study as researching how cement and concrete production contributes to the pollution of our environment and find thus look for alternate methods of producing it to reduce the harmful effects of its production. A demonstration of these results would be through utilizing statistical analysis to project into the future of cement and concrete production as well as determine an estimate of the potential reduction of carbon IV oxide emission.
Introduction
This research paper is aimed at determining the current trends in cement and concrete production while applying strategies to reduce carbon IV Oxide emissions.
Cement and concrete production as one of the major carbon emitters whose emission is responsible for the pollution of the environment, its production is, therefore, one of the destructive environmental products to produce. Cement is composed of calcium silicates that require the heating of limestone in addition to other ingredients at high temperatures. According to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, this heat is placed at 2,640 degrees Fahrenheit of burning fossil fuels and greenhouse gas pollution. Therefore, cement and concrete production results to the emission of approximately one ton of Carbon IV oxide to the atmosphere despite the increased Cement production annually at the rate of 5%, and has also turned to be the second highest utilized material globally after water (Agbeyangi, 2012).
Cement & Concrete Production
Cement and concrete are two distinct materials with different procedures of creation. For cement, it is a powder mix that is made from limestone and clay/shale. The mixture is heated in kilns that are made of inclined long rotating cylinders made of steel that may go up to a length of 180 meters and have a 6-meter diameter (Kurdowski, 2014). The mixture is put through the cylinder’s high head, and then it moves along the kiln’s length slowly due to its continuous rotation and inclination. Fuel is injected and burned at the low head of the kiln to produce the heat needed for the reaction of the two materials to take place. Depending on the length of the cylinder, the mixture may take up to 2 hours passing through the kiln. The kiln produces marble-sized pieces referred to as a clinker, which is a mixture of four compounds (Kurdowski, 2014). Cooling, grinding and mixing of the clinker with a little amount of gypsum that controls the setting to give out the Portland cement is carried out.
Calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients are chemically combined to produce cement whereby, Calcium and Silicon make up 90% of the cement mix. Additionally, gypsum is added to control the setting time that is whether the reaction is to take place quickly or slowly. Therefore, regarding the cement chemical composition, there are five chemical compositions namely;
i. TriCalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5) that makes up 50% of the cement chemical composition and also determines the concretes new strength.
ii. DiCalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) makes up 25%, and it is the one that defines the concretes long-term power.
iii. Tricalcium Aluminate (Ca3Al2O6 ) and TriCalcium Aluminoferrite (Ca4Al2Fe2O10) that both makeups 10% each of the cement chemical composition, but Tricalcium Aluminoferrite reacts least as compared to TriCalcium Aluminate.
iv. Lastly, Gypsum weighted at 5% is added as a catalyst to control the setting time.

More calcium silicate hydrate forms upon the provision of “seeds” through the formation of Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Silicate Hydrate crystals that grow thicker, thus make it hard for unhydrated TriCalcium silicate to be reached by water. The rate at which the molecules diffuse through the calcium silicate hydrate lining is what controls the reaction’s speed. This lining grows over time thus slowing the production of Calcium silicate hydrate (Kurdowski, 2014).
The difference between the material composition of cement and concrete is a significant matter that needs to be considered. For cement, it is primarily a component in the production of concrete whose fundamental ingredients contain Portland cement, water, and a mixture of sand and rock or gravel that is commonly referred to as aggregate (Newman & Choo, 2003). Since cement is frequently processed inform of powder, upon being mixed with water, it acts as a binding agent thus merging both water and cement to form a paste that binds the aggregate. After the combination, the water is what makes the concrete to harden while the roughening of concrete occurs in a process referred to as hydration. Therefore, hydration is a reaction whereby the significant components in cement form chemical bonds with water molecules to give rise to hydrates or hydration products (Newman & Choo, 2003). Thus, water is the primary factor associated with the strength in concrete as a result of the water to cement ration used during the production which is the combination of lbs compared with the overall quantity of cement. The final concrete performance is determined by the water and cement ratio and has a scale of highest to lowest thus, the smaller the water and cement ratio, the stronger the concrete and vice versa (Agbeyangi, 2012).

References
Agbeyangi, D. (2012). Utilising Ash In Concrete Production: The Use Of Wood Waste Ash As An Additive To Cement In Concrete Production. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Kurdowski, W. (2014). Cement and concrete chemistry.
Newman, J., & Choo, B. S. (2003). Advanced concrete technology: [v. 1]. Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Posted in Blog

Name:
Professor’s Name
Course:
Date:
Witches’ of Loaves
The short story Witches’ Loaves by O. Henry appears to be a simple story that involves an old lady who is involved in running a bakery as well as an old gentleman who always buys two loaves of stale bread as well as what happens when Miss Martha Meacham’s act of kindness backfires. The act of kindness is after the lady happens to want the man’s attention by putting butter in the stale bread without the knowledge that the man does not eat the meals but instead uses them as a rubber in his architectural works.
Miss Martha Meacham, a forty-year-old lady, is the main character of this story, and as stated earlier, she runs a bakery. It is noted that Miss Martha possessed two false teeth and was characterized by a compassionate heart. She was also single but still has the hope of some love connection, and when she meets a man with a German accent who comes to her bakery regularly and asks for only two loaves of stale bread, she starts to see a possibility of starting a relationship with him. Martha starts thinking about how to know more about this gentleman, and by noticing his stained fingers, she concludes that he might be an artist and therefore hangs up a painting for him to attract his attention. She also opts to dress well as well as apply makeups so as she could attract prettiest for this man. Luckily, she achieves her motive as the gentleman briefly talks about the painting but does not seem to notice the efforts of Miss Martha getting his attention.
The themes that Miss Martha portrays in the story are the themes of loneliness, independence, embarrassment, desperation, escape love, defeat as well as connection. The central theme happens to be that of loneliness as Miss Martha lives and works for herself with her sole engagement to the rest of the world being through her bakery. This shows that Martha is lonely and this becomes proved when she starts liking the gentleman who comes to buy stale bread at her bakery. The exciting thing about Martha’s liking for this man is her nature of making assumptions and acting on the assumptions that may not be correct. This is because she assumes that the two loaves of stale bread that the gentleman buys daily are always meant for him to eat, and she goes forward to even applying butter on the loaves without the man’s knowledge so that he could see how she is caring and in turn fall for her. Her actions go to the contrary side as the man comes the next day mad at her for destroying his drawings.
She also assumes that the man may be an artist just because he comments on a painting that she leaves on her shelves and that her fingers look stained. This is what makes us see the loneliness in Martha that makes her make all these assumptions as she seems so desperate for the man as she even thinks about the man regularly more than any other customer. She is continuously motivated by the man, and she is so passionate about pursuing a relationship with him.
Miss Martha’s traits as well as her advancement towards the gentleman aids in developing the vital theme of defeat in the story as at the end of the tale Martha realizes that Blumberger misunderstood her and she, therefore, retreats to her shell. This theme of defeat is noticeable as Martha abandons her homemade cosmetics that she had been using all through to gain the attention of the gentleman. She ends up realizing that she committed a mistake and instead of her progress with her goal of getting Blumberger, the defeat makes her embarrassed.
It becomes clear that Miss Martha’s assumptions mislead her and instead of her proceeding to forgiving herself and moving on with life, she happens to take the criticism towards her by Blumberger to her heart. Also, since Blumberger is just a stranger to Miss Martha, she is not supposed to allow his ill blame towards her for her generosity mistakes affect her permanently. Also, the theme of defeat is strengthened in the short story as one is not sure whether the embarrassment that Miss Martha goes through will seclude her from the rest of the world, limit her chances of getting involved in any other courtship affair as well as shatter her confidence.

Works Cited
Henry, O. The Complete Writings of O. Henry [pseud.]. Doubleday, Page and Co, 1917.

Posted in Blog

,
Page 1 of 5
School of Science
COSC2531 Programming Fundamentals
Assignment 3
Assessment Type: Individual assignment; no group work.
Submit online via Canvas → Assignments → Assignment 3.
Marks awarded for meeting requirements as closely as possible.
Clarifications/updates may be made via announcements/relevant discussion forums.
Due date: end of Week 14; The deadline will not change.
Please check Canvas → Assignments → Assignment 3 for the most up to date information.
As this is a major assignment, a university standard late penalty of 10% per each working day applies for up to 5
working days late, unless special consideration has been granted.
Weighting: 30 marks out of 100
1. Overview
The main objective of this assignment is to familiarize you with program design and implementation
for solving a non-trivial problem. You are to solve the problem by designing a number of code
snippets, methods, classes and associating them towards a common goal. If you have questions,
ask via the relevant Canvas discussion forums in a general manner.
2. Assessment Criteria
This assessment will determine your ability to:
1. Follow coding, convention and behavioral requirements provided in this document and in the
lessons.
2. Independently solve a problem by using programming concepts taught in this course.
3. Write and debug Java code independently.
4. Document code.
5. Ability to provide references where due.
6. Meeting deadlines.
7. Create a program by recalling concepts taught in class, understanding and applying concepts
relevant to solution, analysing components of the problem, evaluating different approaches.
3. Learning Outcomes
This assessment is relevant to the following Learning Outcomes:
1. Analyse computing problems.
2. Devise suitable algorithmic solutions and code these algorithmic solutions in JAVA.
3. Develop maintainable and reusable solutions using the modular or object oriented paradigm.
,
Page 2 of 5
4. Assessment details
MySchool is a Java application for schools. It reads data from files. IMPORTANT: you should
change data in these files to verify your program. We will use different files during marking.
Section 1: PASS Level
At this level, your program can read from a file specified in command line and store student scores in
a 2D integer array. You may define methods wherever appropriate to support the functionalities.
scores.txt
34 C081 C082 C083 C084
S2023 99 75 85 62
S2025 -1 92 67 52
S1909 100 83 45 -1
The file stores data as a text table shown above. Data fields are separated by spaces and new lines.
The first row contains course IDs and the first column contains student IDs. The first field in the data,
the top left corner, shows the number of rows and the number of columns in one integer. For
example ‘34’, the first digit 3 means there are 3 students in this table. The second digit 4 means
there are 4 courses. You can assume that the total number of courses will never be more than 9.
The table stores every student’s final results in those courses. Results are all integers. A result ‘-1’
means not enrolled in that course. A ‘0’ means the student did enrol but failed to receive any mark.
Your program can find the student with the highest average score and display on the command line:
> java MySchool scores.txt
> The top student is S2023 with an average 80
Section 2: CREDIT Level — You must ONLY attempt this level after you complete the PASS level
Your program can read one more file which stores the information of courses offered by the school.
Info includes course ID, course title and credit points. You can assume all courses of the school
appear in this file and in the first file (student results file). There is no duplicate or redundant courses.
courses.txt
C081 Mathematics 12
C082 Science 12
C083 English 24
C084 Technologies 6
At this level your program can produce a text file named as course_report.txt.
> java MySchool scores.txt courses.txt
> The top student is S2023 with an average 80
> courses_report.txt generated!
,
Page 3 of 5
Given the above courses.txt, course_report.txt should look like below. The fourth column is
the number of enrolled students. The fifth column is the average score of each course.
C081 Mathematics 12 2 99
C082 Science 12 3 83
C083 English 24 3 65
C084 Technologies 6 2 57
Section 3: DI Level — You must ONLY attempt this level after you complete the CREDIT level
A this level, your program can read one more file from command line. That file stores information
about students, that includes student ID, name (no space between first name and last name, but an
underscore) and age. You can assume all students appear in this file as well as in the first file
(student results file). There is no duplicate records or empty records.
students.txt
S2023 Sue_Vaneer 14
S2025 Robin_Smith 13
S1909 Barry_Banks 15
At this level your program can produce a text file report named as student_report.txt.
> java MySchool scores.txt courses.txt students.txt
> The top student is S2023 with an average 80
> course_report.txt generated!
> student_report.txt generated!
Given the above students.txt, student_report.txt should look like below. The fourth
column is the number of courses that student enrolled im. The fifth column is the average GPA. A
course result of 80+ receives 4 GPA points. A result of 70-79 receives 3 points. A result in between
60-69 is 2 points. 50-59 gets 1 points. Under 50 has 0 points. For example Sue Vaneer has 2 HD, 1
DI and 1 CR. So her GPA is ( 4 x 2 + 3 + 2 ) / 4 = 3.25.
S2023 Sue_Vaneer 14 4 3.25
S2025 Robin_Smith 13 3 2.33
S1909 Barry_Banks 15 3 2.66
At this level, your program can handle some variations in the files.
(1) characters in sources.txt will be treated as -1.
(2) decimal numbers will be treated as integers, ignoring the decimal part, e.g 99.5 -> 99
(3) The order of lines in both students.txt and courses.txt does not matter. (You can
assume that the order of columns does not change.)
scores.txt students.txt
34 C081 C082 C083 C084 S1909 Barry_Banks 15
S2023 99.5 75 85 62 S2025 Robin_Smith 13
S2025 x 92 67 52 S2023 Sue_Vaneer 14
S1909 100 83.2 45 abc
[Hint] You may find exception useful.
,
Page 4 of 5
Section 4: HD Level — You must ONLY attempt this level after you complete the DI level
A this level, your program achieves the above requirements in OO style with at least three classes,
School, Student and Course. Design the appropriate instance variables, constructor(s) and
methods for these classes. Class related info should be encapsulated inside of these classes.
In addition, student_report.txt generated at this level is more advanced, taking credit points of
each course into consideration. See below. The fourth column is now the total credit points that the
student has completed. For example Sue Vaneer, she has done all four courses, so she earned 12 +
12 + 24 + 6 = 54 credit points. The fifth column is the adjusted GPA. So that for Sue is (4 x 12 + 3 x
12 + 4 x 24 + 2 x 6 ) / 54 = 3.55, which is more accurate than that in the DI level.
S2023 Sue_Vaneer 14 54 3.55
S2025 Robin_Smith 13 42 2.42
S1909 Barry_Banks 15 48 2.0
Section 5: Miscellaneous
To verify the calculations, you can import the files, especial the provided test files, into a spreadsheet
tool, e.g. Excel, Google Spreadsheet, Numbers, which can easily compute average, max etc.
You program may have no interaction with users during execution. Simply run the code, read the
files, display output and/or generate file(s).
You can assume user always type file names in the right order in command line, e.g. score file first,
then course file, then student file. However it is possible that file is missing or cannot be found.
Your program should quite gracefully in these circumstances.
5. Referencing guidelines
What: This is an individual assignment and all submitted contents must be your own. If you have
used sources of information other than the contents directly under Canvas→Modules, you must give
acknowledge the sources and give references using IEEE referencing style.
Where: Add a code comment near the work to be referenced and include the reference in the IEEE
style.
How: To generate a valid IEEE style reference, please use the citethisforme tool if unfamiliar with this
style. Add the detailed reference before any relevant code (within code comments).
6. Submission format
Submit one file ProgFunAssignment3.zip, which is the zipped file of all your java file, via
Canvas→Assignments→Assignment 3. It is the responsibility of the student to correctly submit their
files. Please verify that your submission is correctly submitted by downloading what you have
submitted to see if the files include the correct contents.
1. Your final code submission should be clean, neat, and well-formatted (e.g., consistent
indentations) and abide by the formatting guidelines.
2. Identifiers should be named properly and camel case e.g. UsedCar (class) and carPrice
(variable). [Google “camel case”]
,
Page 5 of 5
3. You must include adequate meaningful code-level comments in your program.
4. IMPORTANT: your code should be able to compile and run under command-line.
7. Academic integrity and plagiarism (standard warning)
Academic integrity is about honest presentation of your academic work. It means acknowledging the
work of others while developing your own insights, knowledge and ideas. You should take extreme
care that you have:
• Acknowledged words, data, diagrams, models, frameworks and/or ideas of others you have
quoted (i.e. directly copied), summarised, paraphrased, discussed or mentioned in your
assessment through the appropriate referencing methods,
• Provided a reference list of the publication details so your reader can locate the source if
necessary. This includes material taken from Internet sites.
If you do not acknowledge the sources of your material, you may be accused of plagiarism because
you have passed off the work and ideas of another person without appropriate referencing, as if they
were your own.
RMIT University treats plagiarism as a very serious offence constituting misconduct. Plagiarism
covers a variety of inappropriate behaviours, including:
• Failure to properly document a source
• Copyright material from the internet or databases
• Collusion between students
For further information on our policies and procedures, please refer to the University website.
8. Assessment declaration
When you submit work electronically, you agree to the assessment declaration.
Code must be compiled under command line with no error,
> javac MySchool.java
and runnable under command line
> java MySchool scores.txt courses.txt students.txt
Submission failed to compile would receive heavy mark deduction.
Rubric
Assessment Task Marks
PASS Level 15 marks
CREDIT Level 3 marks
DI Level 3 marks
HD Level 6.5 marks
Others
Code quality and style; proper use of
methods & arguments; good comments
2.5 marks

Posted in Blog