T. S. Eliot was one of the greatest poets, play writers, and literary critics of all time. Not only did he manage to compose numerous volumes of ingenious poetry, but Eliot also wrote a myriad of plays towards the latter end of his life. His poems, however, were some of his best work. It is no surprised that T. S. Eliot was immersed in English literature from the very start of his life. He was born in St. Louis of Missouri in September 26, 1888, as the last of six children. His parents, Henry Ware Eliot and Charlotte C. Eliot, were very encouraging of Eliot’s education. Eliot’s mother particularly was a strong supporter of English literature: Charlotte was an English teacher from Baltimore who retired once she married Eliot’s father. While caring for six children, Charlotte also wrote a biography for her father-in-law, William Greenleaf Eliot, who too was a poet that founded the first Unitarian church in St. Louis. In addition, he established George Washington University and the Smith Academy for Girls. Thus, T. S. Eliot inherently grew up in a well educated, bourgeois environment.
When T. S. Eliot graduated from secondary school at Smith Academy, he chose to study at Harvard in 1906. Eliot at the time wanted to major in philosophy, but always had a keen interest in poetry as well. In fact, at the age of fourteen, Eliot stumbled upon Omar Khayyam’s Rubaiyat, a famous Muslim work that was translated by Edward Fitzgerald. The beautiful and intricate poetry inspired Eliot not only to write lyrical poetry, but also to study linguistics, which represented his appreciation for diverse and vibrant cultures. After a brief one-year break to the school of Sorbonne in Paris, Eliot returned to Harvard to attain a master’s degree in philosophy. In 1914, Eliot transferred to the University of Marsburg in Germany as a graduate student. In Europe, Eliot appreciated the culture and sophistication of both its people and history. When World War I broke out, Eliot moved to Oxford instead of returning home, disregarding his parents’ wishes. However, after a year in Oxford, Eliot left the school because he was disgusted with the campus. Despite this, in June 26, 1915, T. S. Eliot made his stay in Europe permanent by marrying Vivienne Haigh-Wood. Vivienne, an English woman, initially caught Eliot’s attention with her beauty and dancing grace; as time passed on, the marriage lost its magic. Eliot’s disillusionment with marriage could be seen through his attitude and writing. He wrote to friends that while his marriage began with excitement, his mental, emotional, and physical being withered after years of hostility and tension. Finally, after eighteen years of countless arguments and possibly numerous affairs, Eliot and Vivienne separated. Soon after, Vivienne died in a mental hospital, to the indifference of Eliot. In fact, Eliot was so unaffected by Vivienne’s death that he remarried in 1957 to a woman named Esme Valerie Fletcher. The relationship could be seen as scandalous: Esme was thirty seven years his junior. However, Eliot was content with the relationship, stating that for once, he “felt happier than [he] had been for years.” (Miller 218) They had no children together, but Esme stayed by Eliot’s side until his death. After seventy-seven years, Eliot died in January 4, 1965 due to emphysema, a result from his heavy smoking. On that day, the whole world mourned T. S. Eliot’s death, for he was one of the greatest writers of all time.
T. S. Eliot was greatly affected by his surroundings. As a young boy, he grew up in an era that experienced tensions between the different classes. Although his family was very well off, Eliot saw distinct differences between various communities. He knew that while the upper class lived in wealthy conditions and the lower class in poor circumstances, they both had their similarities in problems and predicaments. Eliot was also very sensitive toward women, due to the caring and tender nature of his mother, Charlotte C. Eliot. Charlotte not only influenced him as a poet, but also taught him to recognize that women faced unfair inequalities. In addition, Eliot was exposed to the effects of war in 1914. Originally, Eliot had wanted to attend the University of Marsburg in Germany; but when World War I broke out, he was forced to change plans and study at Oxford in England. During this time period, Eliot experienced first-hand the life of the urban city, which inspired him to write The Wasteland, one of the greatest poems of his career. However, the biggest influence toward Eliot and his writing was his conversion to the Church of England. His love for his newly found home, England, could be found in the deep, religious themes of his poems written toward the end of his life. All these social factors in T. S. Eliot’s environment affected his entire being.
T. S. Eliot has written a variety of works, including both poems and plays. His collections include “Prufrock and Other Observations,” “Four Quartets,” “The Faber Book of Modern Verse,” “The Hollow Men,” and “The Wasteland.” Some of his more outstanding poems include “Ash Wednesday,” and “The Wasteland.” In addition to poems, T. S. Eliot also composed plays, such as Murder in the Cathedral, and The Cocktail Party. However, Eliot’s poems are the more significant accomplishments of his career.
T. S. Eliot writes with a variety of approaches. He mostly uses a complex prose or verse style, with simple yet penetrating phrases that give a whole new meaning to the context. Eliot’s free verse is especially very interesting, because they seem to have no definite pattern to them. Yet, when comparing all of his poems together, Eliot seems to have left a definite trademark of his writing in his works. For example, his words give certain imagery to them, one that is neither vague nor extremely apparent. Usually, Eliot focuses his writing on urban tawdriness, social malaise, and unease with women. There is also a trend that can be seen between the events of his life and his writing. For example, in his young age, Eliot addressed his severe disappointment in civilization, probably as a cause of World War I. Many of his poems, including his famous “The Wasteland,” mention the belief that society would self-destruct on its own due to a spiritual void of anxiety and boredom. Later in Eliot’s life, however, his writing style changed. His method became more freely associated with ideas and feelings, giving way to a vulnerable side that no one had ever seen of Eliot. Converting to the Anglican Church was probably the key factor in this, as Eliot’s “Ash Wednesday” strongly reflected his strong commitment to Christian orthodoxy. Summarily, Eliot wrote ingenious poetry that showed off his expertise of rhythm and cadence. He indirectly reflected his own life’s experiences in his poetry, despite denying of doing such things. Literary critic Richard Ellmann stated that “Eliot was addicted to the portrayal of characters who had missed their chances, become old before they had really been young” (Epstein 222). Eliot’s writing style, thus, is very distinguishable due to its free verse, simple yet effective vocabulary, and similar themes concerning despair in emotion-less society and complicated relationships with women.
“Is it perfume from a dress/ That makes me so digress? / Arms that lie along a table, or wrap about a shawl./ And should I then presume? / And how should I begin?” (Eliot 277). As it can be seen in this sample of “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” T. S. Eliot usually writes of apprehension and anxiety towards women in his poetry. As a result of his upbringing by his mother, Eliot has a deep respect for women. However, in his poems Eliot usually writes with unease about women relationships. Specifically, he attacks the false ideals that most of society has with respect to love. Many of his poems refute traditional ideas of blissful love by turning the situation around to present actual situations that happened commonly in the era of his time. Thus, T. S. Eliot exemplifies the disillusionments of love with his poems.
During his early years, T. S. Eliot represented his ridicule of melodramatic romances with “Nocturne.” The poem, a petrarchan sonnet, alludes in both form and subject to the Shakespeare play, Romeo and Juliet. In “Nocturne,” Eliot jests at Shakespearean fans for glorifying these examples of meaningless love, which he feels is a poor representation of reality and life’s true relationships. Eliot modifies the poem by adding satirical humor. For example, he starts off the poem with “Of love, beneath a bored but courteous moon;/ The conversation failing, strikes some tune” (Eliot “Nocturne” 23. 2-3). The personification of the moon gives an image to the reader of a plain, dull moon that is only present to give the dreamy effect that all romanticists love. During this particular part in “Nocturne,” Eliot is setting the scene, although his slightly mocking tone forebodes of humorous mishaps to come. The words “failing” and “bored” relate to Eliot’s theme because it derides the passionate feelings that usually come out of romantic works. Eliot thus immediately portrays his opinions in the beginning of the poem.
In the middle of “Nocturne,” Eliot twists the plot by changing the suicide of Juliet into a murder, directed by the narrator himself. Eliot writes “Behind the wall I have some servant wait,/ stab, and the lady sinks into a swoon” (Eliot “Nocturne” 23. 6-7). Eliot’s knowledge of poetic devices shows, as portrayed in his numerous uses of alliteration within two lines. He suddenly changes the tone of the poem by bringing in abrupt violence into the piece. This unexpected distortion in the poem subtly pokes fun at the rash and impulsive decisions that romantic characters make. While the death of Juliet creates a dramatic scene, it has almost entirely nothing to do with the original storyline, and does not achieve a single productive result. Hence, “Nocturne” thus ridicules the melodramatics of Shakespearean, or general, romances for their rash yet foolish actions.
In the end of the poem, Eliot finishes “Nocturne” by directly addressing the exaggerated emotions of romanticists. After the death of Juliet, Eliot continues with “(No need of ‘Love forever?’-‘Love next week?’)/ While female readers all in tears are drowned” (Eliot “Nocturne” 23. 12-13). Essentially, Eliot parodies the senseless goriness with which readers entertain themselves. He finds it humorous that in most love stories, “true love” can arrive instantaneously yet disappear as swiftly as it had come. Eliot’s ironic combination of the phrases “love forever” and “love next week” exemplifies the theme that he is attempts to portray throughout the poem. In addition, “Nocturne” ridicules the ardent fervor of romantic devotees by describing their emotions with the hyperbole, “all in tears are drowned.” Certainly, by the end of “Nocturne,” the reader can discern that Eliot believes that people should be more reasonable and not fall for such fallacies.
Although “Nocturne” was written by a very young T. S. Eliot, it undoubtedly captures the attitude of Eliot that portrays in numerous other writings for years to come. From the start of his writing career, Eliot warns the public not to be deluded by the countless romances that over-dramatize love and its nature. Thus, by alluding to the famous Romeo and Juliet, Eliot illustrates his belief in “Nocturne” that one should look at love with a realistic, and not idealistic, point of view.
“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”
In addition, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” portrays T. S. Eliot’s belief that the idealistic paradigm of love contrasts with the reality of relationships. Eliot wrote “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” along with his compilation of “Prufrock and Other Collections” in 1910. Eliot further developed his writing style during this time period, creating his well known signature odes that can be seen in this poem. “Prufrock” describes the complicated relationship between a man and his long-time friend. The lover is a balding man, who although is assured that he and his friend have known each other long enough, cannot bring himself to propose to his friend, for fear of rejection. In the end, he grows old and lonely, having never confessed his love. The poem starts out calmly, leaving the reader to assume that the lady accompanying the narrator is his lover. However, by line 45, when Eliot writes “Do I dare/ Disturb the universe?/ In a minute there is time/ For decisions and revisions which a minute will reverse,” the reader can assume that the relationship is much more complicated than what it appears to be (Eliot “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” 5. 45-48). This is a significant verse from the poem because it portrays the narrator’s hesitation to confess his love. His uncertainty fully embodies one of Eliot’s main themes, which is regret and wistfulness. While the author yearns to express his love, he is fearful that his actions will end things horribly, something that he cannot endure. The regret and anxiety that the narrator feels goes along with Eliot’s opinion that love in reality is troublesome and never perfect.
Another instance that exemplifies T. S. Eliot’s pessimistic convictions regarding love is when he writes that the narrator is in agony later in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.” During this period, Alfred Prufrock continues to lament about his misfortune, for he is torn between declaring his love and suppressing his true feelings forever. For example, he thoughtfully contemplates why he is so attracted to women:
Is it perfume from a dress
That makes me so digress?
Arms that lie along a table, or wrap about a shawl.
And should I presume?
And how should I begin?
(Eliot “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” 6. 65-69)
The palpable longing in Prufrock’s words appeals to the reader’s sympathy. In addition, Eliot expertly rhymes “dress” and “digress” to create a rhythm and cadence within the poem, thus further appealing to the reader’s senses. With these combinations combined, Eliot presents a realistic view of how love acts in reality: Instead of being simple and effortless, the true nature of relationships tare stressful and even cause emotional pain. Thus, by using the agony of Prufrock as an ethos, T. S. Eliot demonstrates that love is disillusioned in society.
Finally, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” finishes off with a tone of complete nostalgia and regret. While the beginning of the poem started off in a pleasant, soothing manner, by the end Prufrock has a voice of defeat and sorrow. He becomes very wistful, wondering whether it would have been worth confessing after all. Eliot writes:
And would it have been worth it all, after all,
Would it have been worth awhile,
After the sunsets and the dooryards and the sprinkled streets,
After the novels, after the teacups, after the skirts that trail
Along the floor-
And this, and so much more? –
(Eliot “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” 9. 97-103)
The poignant tone of Alfred’s voice once more appeals to the reader’s sympathy, which further emphasizes Eliot’s belief that love is not uncomplicated. It should also be noted that Eliot only rhymes the last two lines, which not only gives the poem cadence but is also a common characteristic throughout the entire work. The statement essentially portrays the narrator’s regret of never confessing his love. Although he is content enough with the blissful memories, he questions whether it would have been better to profess and lift the burden that burdens him now. Eliot ends his poem with this question hanging in mind, so as to show that the misery of Alfred Prufrock will never end until he dies. Thus, love in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” is not as easy as depicted in stereotypical romances, according to T. S. Eliot.
To summarize, T. S. Eliot portrays a more realistic tragic love story in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” compared to “Nocturne.” His writing style is more fully developed at this point, which in this case is characterized by odes and free verse. T. S. Eliot once more displays his discontent in erroneous views of love and shows that relationships usually are imperfect and heartbreaking. Thus, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” exemplifies Eliot’s opinion about the flaws of idealistic love.
“Portrait of a Lady”
As a final point, T. S. Eliot proves that love is disillusioned in society by writing “Portrait of a Lady.” The poem, which was written in 1925, is very similar to “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” in that they both are composed of lyrics with complex stanza forms. The poem makes numerous allusions in both French and classical music: for example, the famous Preludes by Frederic Chopin are mentioned. The combination of romance languages and sophisticated melodic compositions create an effect of classiness and elegance, despite the theme that the poem presents. Within “Portrait of a Lady,” Eliot discusses the abstruse relationship between a man and an older woman. The man, who must separate from his older beau, seems trapped because the woman wishes to still correspond. Most likely, the relationship formed on false pretenses for the advantage of the man, because one can tell that the woman is very well off. For example, in line 15, the narrator initiates the poem with a description of the woman’s house:
Among velleities and carefully caught regrets
Through attenuated tones of violins
Mingled with remote cornets
(Eliot “Portrait of a Lady” 55. 15-18)
The very delicate nature that the poem takes on in the beginning sets a scene of tranquil elegance. However, T. S. Eliot cleverly introduces a foreboding of conflict with the words “velleities” and “regrets.” The reader can discern from such a verse that “Portrait of a Lady” will be slightly obscure, because the tone does not noticeably match up with the issue presented. When further analyzed, one can also tell that the conflict at hand represents complications, a point that Eliot made about relationships. Thus, within the beginning, “Portrait of a Lady” already demonstrates the realities and difficulties of relationships.
Furthermore, T. S. Eliot goes on to describe the hardships of life and its regrets in “Portrait of a Lady.” A common theme that can be found in Eliot’s poems is the nostalgia and regret that is reflected upon in old age. Drawing from the perspective of the man, Eliot incorporates dialogue into the poem to make the wistfulness all the more realistic. For example, in one scene, the woman speaks to teach the man the importance of life:
‘Ah, my friend, you do not know, you do not know
What life is, you who hold it in your hands’;
(Slowly twisting the lilac stalks)
‘You let it flow from you, you let it flowâ€¦’
(Eliot “Portrait of a Lady” 56. 44-47)
From this verse, the reader can tell that the woman has had much experience in her life about the meaning of friendship. Her wisdom derives from her old age, which makes her seem the more superior and sophisticated one out of the relationship between her and her beau. Such a relationship was exactly the type of contrast that Eliot wanted to achieve with romantic archetypes; during Eliot’s era it was more common that men dominated relationships and provided most of the wealth. The poem thus reflects Eliot’s belief that love is a complicated and adverse matter.
Lastly, “Portrait of a Lady” deliberates over the complications of relationships, specifically through the age difference between the narrator and his older love. Eliot emphasizes his point that relationships in actuality are complex and contain certain motives, unlike the innocence and happiness they are credited for in stereotypical romances. With “Portrait of a Lady,” the man must separate from his beau, although the woman believes that she is near her end anyways. She tells the narrator:
But what have I, but what have I, my friend,
To give you, what can you receive from me?
Only the friendship and the sympathy
Of one about to reach her journey’s end
(Eliot “Portrait of a Lady” 58. 64-67)
The sadness yet knowing tone of the woman gives a sense of an inevitable end to the relationship between the man and woman. Although later in the poem, the narrator shows that this is what he wanted all along, the statement still does justice by displaying the complications of relationships. Along with refuting generalized ideas of love, Eliot too gives the message that personal friendships should not be based upon false pretenses.
To conclude, in “Portrait of a Lady” T. S. Eliot teaches the reader the complexity of love and refutes stereotypical paradigms.
The styles and themes of T. S. Eliot’s poetry brought him up to achieve the fame and esteem that he has now. Eliot’s poetry was not only well constructed, but it consistently had thought provoking material that was open to various interpretations. Specifically, throughout many of his poems, Eliot concentrated on attacking the erroneous and stereotypical based beliefs of love and its nature. He believed that love itself was a complicated affair, which he described intensely and effectively in his poetry. These certain poems include “Nocturne,” which he wrote at a young age; “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” which portrayed not only Eliot’s opinions but also demonstrated the potential of his writing; and lastly “Portrait of a Lady,” which included the most inextricable motives out of all three. All these works tie in to state Eliot’s frustration with society’s conviction that relationships and friendships are a simple affair: in fact, they are based on ever-changing motives and cause tension socially. As T. S. Eliot once said, “poetryâ€¦is the ideal medium for expressing intense and universal emotions of spiritual states” (“T. S. Eliot” CD-ROM). Certainly, T. S. Eliot effusively reveals his message of the disillusionments of love with his poems and spectacular writing style, making him one of the best poets of all time.
Billy told them that Nichole had witnessed the accident; that she was sitting in the bus up front next to Dolores, and that Dolores had been speeding. Now everyone in town would hear this and take it for the truth because this girl in a wheelchair had spoken it and the town would be able to start recovering. Dolores felt as if a huge weight had been lifted from her. She had been carrying it around with her for eight months and it was suddenly gone. It was odd that she did not feel unjustly accused or righteously angry but she did not. This defined Dolores as a hero for her peers.
Concept – If Nichole was the heroine for the town, Dolores is the heroine of the spirit. She has conducted herself with great dignity during the aftermath of the bus accident, taking care to show sympathy but not asserting herself in any way. She had considered the people of Sam Dent to be her family and, like all families, she assumed that this would pass over and she would be invited back into the fold. However, the night of the Demolition Derby changed all that. It was clear that the people did not receive her well as she struggled with Abbott’s wheelchair. She could manage that. What she could not abide is what Billy Ansel had told her; that Nichole had saved the town from multiple lawsuits by saying that Dolores had been speeding. Yet she is not angry. She is in a different place from these people now. She has suffered much. Each family grieved the loss of its own child but Dolores grieves for them all.
Connection – Dolores was a symbol of integrity and grit in a time of serious pain and suffering that the whole town had to endure. She was the wall that stood when every other wall had crumbled around her. She served as a model for the type of person that should be able to lead a community through times of pain, and she did exactly that.
Literary Work – The Sweet Hereafter
Term – Symbol
Definition – In literature, symbolism is used to provide meaning to the writing beyond what is actually being described. The plot and action that take place in a story can be thought of as one level, while the symbolism of certain things in the writing act on another level to enhance the story.
Context – Dolores was shaken out of her reverie when Abbott raised his left arm and pointed to the infield; there was old Boomer ready to do battle in the derby. The flag was dropped and the cars started to smash into it, repeatedly. Boomer was being hit from all directions, but it still escaped each crash to go back again. Boomer was still alive. Now the drivers were even ganging up on the car, but Boomer hung in. Finally, there were only three cars left that were still running. That is when the crowd started clapping, just as they had when Nichole had entered the grandstand. Eventually, Jimbo was able to steer Boomer out of the path of the other two cars, did lots of fancy steering and Boomer won the heat. The crowd went wild. Dolores was pleased that her old car was victorious over the other ones, but it was time to go.
Concept – The symbolism of Dolores’s old car getting banged up at the Demolition Derby seems appropriate in a way, as that is the last time the town will have a chance to put any more dents in her or anything connected to her. She will not let them hurt her anymore. She will bear the injustice that is for sure. She will also notice that people look at her a bit warily from now on, just like those forest creatures waiting for her to pass them in the night.
Connection – The car was a symbol of the pain that she had to endure as a product of the community’s animosity. The car getting banged shows the amount of injustice that was portrayed towards her as a human being. That injustice drove her away, she wanted to leave the town with no connection, for good.
Literary Work – The Sweet Hereafter
Term – Allegory
Definition – is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than the literal. Allegory teaches a lesson through symbolism. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric.
Context – If not for the effects of the failing national economy, the tentacles of mass media and the upscale vacationers who drive north from the city, the small, upstate New York town of Sam Dent, setting of The Sweet Hereafter, would otherwise remain isolated in its own particular late-twentieth-century solitude. On a recent winter morning a schoolbus skids off the road, tumbles down an embankment and into a water-filled sand pit. Fourteen of the town’s children are killed.
Concept – The fabric of order in Sam Dent is suddenly torn apart. The novel does not present this in public acts of mourning or violence; there are few overt acts of vengeance or compensation. Rather, we experience the horror, the uncontainable pain, in the voices of the novel’s four narrators, who in the aftermath of the accident present to us not only themselves and the facts as they know them; they also present to us the mysterious and inevitable continuance of their lives. This was in accordance to life of the American people at the time. Banks is representing the views and pains of the American people into his text.
Connection – The book was published in 1991 during an economic time that was abysmal. The style of writing with the theme of death and tragedy being prevalent in the novel seems as though he is trying to bring the outcry of the American people out of their houses into the public.
Literary Work – The Sweet Hereafter
Term – Diction and Genre
Definition – Diction has multiple concerns; register – words being either formal or informal in social context – is foremost. Literary diction analysis reveals how a passage establishes tone and characterization, e.g. a preponderance of verbs relating physical movement suggests an active character, while a preponderance of verbs relating states of mind portrays an introspective character. Diction also has an impact upon word choice and syntax. Genre is a loose set of criteria for a category of composition; the term is often used to categorize literature and speech, but is also used for any other form of art or utterance.
Context – As readers, caught up in the life of the novel, we make a leap from our burdened and mysterious real lives to something we perceive in the heart of its characters. We seek, and perhaps find, a kind of communion with something larger. Yet since a character is, after all, simply a construct of crafted language, most of what we find there, as in a dream, has to have been ours in the first place. What we seek is ourselves. Yet the life we live and the lives we read about in so many contemporary novels seem to have less and less in common.
Concept – In explaining why the storyteller has become a thing of the past, Walter Benjamin told us, “One reason for this phenomenon is obvious: experience has fallen in value.” Since he wrote this, the trend has accelerated. Even the complex technologies of fiction we’ve been steadily evolving since Chekhov cannot keep apace of this devaluation. I see in much of Banks’s work a refusal to find this acceptable. Whether vast or local in scope, the foundation for his fiction is experience in its most familiar and simultaneously mysterious circumstance: as we know it, be it, before it is crafted into the larger, rarefied context of fictional narrative. We can find it there.
Connection – This realism exemplified by Russell Banks is both old-fashioned and new. New because his characters feel as if he first discovered them outside of fiction, not from pre-existing literary or cultural models.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the most renowned poems of ancient times. It is a collection of many different poems and legends among other literary works however they are based on the story of an individual man who goes by the name of Gilgamesh. The Epic is believed to be based on the heroic acts of this king of ancient times. The originality of the poem is believed to be from Sumerian legends and poems based on the king. They however were compiled into one longer Akkadian poem which ended up being regarded as the complete version of the poem.
Gilgamesh according to the poem was a king in the ancient times of the Sumerian dynasty and was believed to be demigod king who possessed superhuman strength and ability. Believed to be two part god and one part human, he had a human father who went by the name of Lugalbanda and a goddess mother known as Ninsun also referred to in some texts as Rimat Ninsun.
Gilgamesh in the poem is a king who was originally a tyrant if you will, he caused a lot of injustice to his people by doing as he deemed fit not considering the feelings of his people by doing such acts such as raping the women, it did not matter if they were just getting married or if they already were, overworking his people when it came to the effort of building the city wall of Uruk which was 6 miles long and 18 ft thick. (Fidel, 2001, 2002)
However the building of the wall succeeded in giving him fame in the long run as he was able to protect his people from invasion and external attacks.
In the poem Gilgamesh has a partner or a close friend who was so much like Gilgamesh in physique and behaviour but however he had a softer side to him. Scholars can assume that probably this friend who was known as Enkidu probably could have been Gilgameshâ€™s conscience. In the poems Enkidu was a man brought up by animals and later moves into Gilgameshâ€™s turf to try and help the people from the tyranny of the king. However instead of using force as you would expect in such attempts Enkidu befriends Gilgamesh softening him. Eventually Enkidu dies after he and Gilgamesh invade the Cedar forest and kill the guardian demon, Humbaba, even though it was against the wishes of the gods.
In the poem Gilgamesh after losing his friend Enkidu goes into a depression as we would say today, he reflects on his own life and the loss of his friend. He develops a fear of death and thus ends up travelling to the ends of the world in search of immortality. Here he is in search of the secrets of life and death. In a way this aspect of the poem approaches a question that has been questioned ever since the beginnings of time both by philosophers and people of religion. Through the Epic of Gilgamesh we can safely assume that the poem addressed this issue of immortality in the medieval times influencing later stories which were to have immortality issues involved.
Because of his friends death Gilgamesh reflects on the way he rules his people and so serves as a guide to helping him become a better version of himself. The story plays a role in future literary works of having a moral lesson involved. The roles of moral stories tend to make the readers reflect on the different ways they lead their lives and they tend to influence people to become better.
The original epic was crafted by the Sumerians but reworked and edited by the later cultures of the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians and Assyrians. The earliest recorded version of the epic was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni and was found in the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh.
It was written originally in the Sumerian language with cuneiform characters on 12 tablets.
In modern times the epic of Gilgamesh is widely known and has played a great role and influence on modern literally works.
In a nutshell what the story talks about is of a king who is oppressing his people and as punishment is sent a mirror image Enkidu. They together kill the giant Humbaba defying the godsâ€™ warnings, cutting down the forest and killing the Bull of Heaven. Enkidu has bad dreams of the destiny of tyrants and how they suffer in the after life in the House of Death. Enkidu tries to guide Gilgamesh trying to convince him to change his ways but eventually dies of an illness imposed on him by the gods. Gilgamesh scared of death goes to a man by the name Utnapishtim a man favoured by the gods due to his devotion and loyalty to them. He puts Gilgamesh to several tests which he fails and eventually is sent away by Utnapishtim who assures him that he cannot escape death. Humbled by the experience Gilgamesh returns back home and asks that his story to be inscribed in stone probably so as to teach others the valuable lessons he had learnt on his quest and on his life.
Utnapishtim who was loved by the gods was saved by the gods in the poem from a great flood which has so much likeness like in the story of the biblical Noah who was ordered to build the ark. The stories have so much likeness that scholars perceive that there is the likelihood that the epic poem may have had an influence on the writing of the Noah story.
The use of cuneiform of writing which is the earliest known method of writing using reed markings on wet clay tablets gives us an insight into early forms of writing. Also the works are the earliest possible known literature works ever found.
The epic also has played a role in showing that the Sumerians lived together in peace with the Akkadians who were from Syria from around 3,000 BC. The few times that the use of law to govern the people has been mentioned in the works goes on to suggest that this may have been the first law book, laws of Ur-Nammu King of Ur. It also provides us with information that Gilgamesh was the 5th king of Uruk.
The moral aspect of the poem guides us by telling us of the dangers of tyranny oppression and what ambition can do to a man instead it helps guide us on concentrating on the simpler things in life like having a simple life, resting enjoying a good relationship with others as well as enjoying love food and drink. The poem also has a conservationist angle to it urging people to take care of the environment when it depicts the issue of the cutting down of the forest so it can be assumed to be pro nature.
The epic also goes on to show that we all mankind are responsible for the actions that we commit and therefore should accept the consequences that come with them, if we lead a bad life being violent, proud, etc we should expect retribution or punishment for our actions.
Basically what I have deduced from the poem is that the poem has a central theme of seizing the day as it comes. Live for today and enjoy every moment of it.
The economic globalization leads to the linguistic globalization. The variables which make the language globalized are the number of languages, migration of people, foreign language learning, tourism, internet languages, and international scientific publications. Because of the dominant cultural status of the UK and the USA, English has been developed as a lingua franca. The reasons to form global English are its geographical-historical and socio-cultural origins, and it is also the people’s natural needs of their real social life, whose comprehensive forces formed from the history and practice make the spread of English unstoppable in the world.
Nowadays, because of the impact of globalization and modernization, minority or indigenous languages worldwide are endangered or the gradual disappearance has become a universal phenomenon. The survival of the world’s linguistic diversity is also facing a severe threat. Concerned about the harm to the world’s linguistic and cultural diversity, the trend of globalization of English, and as soon as possible to take countermeasures, how to protect the human linguistic diversity has aroused great concern.
Only half a century ago, any notion of English as a true global language was but a dim, shadowy, theoretical possibility, surrounded by the political, social and economical uncertainties of that time, and lacking any clear definition or sense of direction. Fifty years on, the situation of English has become peculiar in that perhaps no other language has ever been so important on a global scale. Now no one would ever argue that English is the common language of our world.
In today’s world, global language is a phrase that repeats itself at such a high frequency that few others can outmatch. One may bear in his or her mind the question of what are the properties that could justify a language with such a title. Why a language becomes a global language has little to do with the number of people who speak it. It has much more to do with who those speakers are. They must have huge power in economy, military, politics, etc.
The globalization of English swallows and replaces the languages of the weak and small nations of the world, and the languages and cultures of the weak nations are faced with the possible destruction and the threat. People should protect the long-term human accumulation and living treasures of the languages and cultures, and to build a better multi-language and multi-cultural harmonious international environment.
The rise of English as a global language has much to do with, besides its own traits, Britain’s language expansion policies over British colonial period, the rise of America and other English-speaking countries in the 20th century and the acceleration of globalization, etc. (Xu 1-2) English has become an important communication tool for people around the world. Meanwhile, the hegemony of English has serious consequences, among other things; it has speed up the loss of traditional cultures for non-English-speaking countries and become a threat to world’s cultural diversity and language ecology.
Some writers (e.g.Phillpson, Skuttnab-Kangeas) claim that with the world-wide spread and the establishment of dominant status, English is regarded as a ‘killer language’, (Skuttnab-Kangeas 1996:33), which endangers other languages and disrupts language ecology.
The English gradual globalization brings the following several questions:
First, People maybe forget the conventions, to be Westernized or Americanized. The massive English words and expressions, the expressional ways invade other countries, so that the chastity of languages comes under the influence. What’s more, people’s thoughts have been seriously twisted.
Second, following the English coming, western culture in the foundation of the western value system invades the world, and affects the national culture’s cultural and linguistic diversity.
Third, regarding the special emphasis on the English study, it has the influence to the mother tongue study, simultaneously creates the people mother tongue’s loyalty drop. Therefore, it poses a serious threat to indigenous people and languages.
Fourth, the only English movement encroaches on the education of mother language. The child English education outset age ahead of time. English education expense is huge. In Beijing, 240,000 the only0-6 year-old cities child cost as high as 140,000,000 to 280 million Yuan for English study every year.
In view of the appearance of the present phenomena, the “English invasion” will be able to create our country’s the language crisis and the cultural crisis. This is a new colonialism. The language is the carrier of culture. The maintenance of language chastity and the independence, regarding maintains cultural system of our country, safeguards development of the countries play the extremely vital role.
However, some people hold different opinions. They think that:
Compared to most other European languages, such as German or French, English has a minimal grammar, which can be easily used and learned by non-English speakers. However, according to Spain and Smith, it may be objected that any European language will be difficult for speakers of oriental languages, but this is not necessarily true. The Japanese, for instance, do not experience such problems with Italian and Spanish pronunciation. These examples include that the native speakers of the world’s only other major wide-spread language (Spanish, with around 360 million speakers), all find English pronunciation problematic to at least some extent.(36)
Also, in some key areas of global communication, the English is working language. Since English is the most widely spoken language, it also serves as the official language in some organizations, such as the U.N., the Olympic Games, the General Assembly, or other significant international settings. Besides, although English is not spoken by the largest number of people, it’s used in communication in the most widely spread areas. Thus, more and more people have to use language at work, for examples, the Chinese people in Singapore, Malaysia, etc. English enables China, as a member of this village, to share the achievements of civilizations the world over, but the spread of English in China also brings with it linguistic imperialism. (Liu, Yunfei. Lei, Qing 3-4) All in all, it is just a trend toward globalization, which can not avoid or eradicate.
Certainly, as an official and the most popular language, English has been used everywhere by numerous people. However, it cannot be neglected it’s damaging the diversity of languages and causing cultural crisis all over the world. Many people have to speak English at work which means that English proficiency has become the entail condition of employment the promotion and this situation forces people to learn English at all cost. In some important international situations, people use English to communicate or have a conference. However, actually not English can be an official language, French or even Chinese can also help to make the conferences or events finish successfully.
People all over the world start to learn English is also a big reason for the wide usage of English. China, for example, with a huge population, has too much emphasized the foreign language teaching. The population of the study English increases year by year, some experts forecast that again several years later in China the population of English study will surpass the total population number in English mother tongue country. Besides, the bilingual education causes English substitution Chinese to become the teaching terminology.
If things continue this way, the national language authority and the national sovereignty will be in danger. The national sovereignty does not allow vacillating; otherwise it will be able to pose the threat to the national security. Maintenance of nation’s characteristic cultural system is the basis of nation’s development. The maintenance of language chastity and independence can strengthen the national emotion, and national cohesive force, to realize the reunification of the motherland vital role.
On the basis of the above analysis, the conclusion is that to some extent. English does affect language diversity, which manifests in different forms according to different context. In the core English-speaking countries, it severely leads to the endangerment of many indigenous languages. In some periphery-English countries, English deprives those state languages of the right of intellectualization. Certainly, we are unable to avoid English globalization, but we should also see English invasion will be able to create a series of social crisis. First, “English hot” causes the people’s mother tongue loyalty drop; Second, the English vigorously promotion massively invades individual study energy and the national education resources; Third, English invasion leads to the legal status, the social position gliding down; Fourth is more serious that “English hot” threaten security of country culture, leads to the sovereignty losing of national language culture . Given this situation, people can adopt some methods: first, comprehensively analyze the threat of “English invasion”, analysis status of English and other languages in international society and the future development tendency; second on the basis of realistic situation and the forecast result we should adopt the strategy suits each country’s development.
A true society has distinct individuals, a colorful culture, and ideas and traits that encourage differences, not a load of ignorant fools who hate books with a passion. In Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury presents a society that holds the deadly qualities of ignorance and selfishness, qualities that Ray Bradbury warns so much about. In this society people fear change, act for personal pleasure, and only care for themselves. Characters like Mildred cheerfully burn books to avoid their problems, while characters in position to make change, like Faber, are too fearful and selfish to share their knowledge. Ray Bradbury purposefully puts certain characters and events in the story to warn that if society adapts the deadly traits of ignorance, and selfishness, the same consequences of Montag’s society will follow, leading present day society to its’ downfall.
By illustrating the ignorant and carefree attitude of Montag’s society, Bradbury warns that if present day culture adapts the quality of ignorance, it will become a controlled, repressed, and drone-like society. After Montag finishes his talk with Faber, Mildred’s friends treat him to a conversation pertaining to the presidential candidates that recently ran for office: “I laid it on the line for President Noble. I think he is one of the nicest looking men ever became presidentâ€¦ Even their name helped. Compare Winston Noble to Hubert Hoag for ten seconds and you can almost figure the results” (Bradbury 97). Ray Bradbury strategically puts this quote in the book to show us the effect that ignorance has on society. In both present day society, and the society of Montag’s, every person is given the right to vote. What people choose to do with this privilege is a choice that people make for themselves. In the novel Bradbury portrays Mildred’s friend as a complete reflection of the society that she lives in. She cares only about herself. When it comes to electing presidents, she chooses the one with the coolest name, and the nicest face, rather than electing the man best fit to govern her nation with responsibility. Bradbury warns his readers that if they choose the same path as the friends of Mildred, society will also tumble at the dictator’s whim, quickly to destruction. Even as ignorant as Mildred’s friends are, after Guy reveals his books to Mildred, she proves much more of an opposition to change than any other person in Bradbury’s society: “He could hear her breathing rapidly and her face was paled out and her eyes fastened wide. She said his name over, twice, three times. Then moaning she ran forward seized a book, and ran towards the kitchen incineratorâ€¦” (66). Mildred proves herself as a person who is ignorant of learning, change, and progression as a society. When Guy brings books, or life changing factors that make have the potential to make society progress, Mildred quickly shuns them, trying to burn them before she even has the chance to learn. These actions can also be related to present day society, Bradbury warns us that when people like Mildred become to afraid to change, or progress as a culture, society will stop in its’ tracks, regressing to the point where it is unidentifiable.
By using characters that reflect society’s traits, Bradbury skillfully demonstrates that selfish and fearful individuals add up to create a repressive culture and society. This is first proved when Faber admits his own fear of spreading truth and knowledge: “I can sit comfortably at home, warming my frightened bones, and hear and analyze the fireman’s world, find its’ weaknesses without danger” (91). Bradbury creates Faber in order to represent a knowledgeable intellectual who knows the truth about society in the present day world. Bradbury places him inside the story to represent the hope and change that can bring reform to Montag’s culture. But Faber has one fatal quality. He does not talk to others about faults within the government and society. This is because he is fearful of the consequences that would occur if he brought change forth. Faber had vast array of knowledge in the story, just how teachers have so much knowledge in present day society. But like an unused talent, the knowledge that Faber has simply sits locked away in a safe where nobody could gain access to it. When Bradbury establishes this concept to his readers, he proves that in striving to become a better culture and society, people must always work at spreading new knowledge and ideas. Even as fearful as Faber is, a selfish fool like Mildred proves no match to Faber on how much a person can work to prevent change from being introduced. In the latter part of the story, Mildred can no longer handle the pressure of having books in her house, so she simply calls the firemen and turns in Montag: “She shoved the valise in the waiting beetle, climbed in, and sat mumbling , ‘Poor family, poor family, oh everything gone, everything, everything gone nowâ€¦’” (pg114). Mildred reports Guy to the firemen because he is in possession of the books. Bradbury establishes Mildred as the typical friend to Guy, just like how anyone else in this world can be a typical friend to another. Except Mildred is given one fatal flaw, she has fear. The fear that Mildred has of books drove her mad, and out of fear of society’s punishments, she turns own her husband in to the firemen. Bradbury makes Mildred very relatable to a present day person; they both watch T.V, socialize, drive cars, vote, and have friends. With this relation he warns that people are not too many steps away from filling Mildred’s shoes in present day society. Bradbury warns that if people do not keep a watchful eye on each other, the time will soon be too late for realization and individuality will succumb to government control
If present day society is not taught, and does not learn to accept, read, and learn the truth, people will begin to turn on each other, acting in the name of selfishness and fear. By using characters that have these fatal qualities Bradbury forcefully warns that if society does not change, progress, and learn as a culture then it will be no better than the society of Montag’s. If people selfishly decide, and cease to care about the world around them, the bright points of humanity that are so treasured and loved in the world today will dissipate. Culture’s beloved art, ideals, legacies will become a fading memory, forever leaving a scar on the headstone of humanity.
Listen up! Are people really listening? What is listening and why is it important? This paper will address the viewpoint of listening skills and its outcome. Listening is an essential tool, which is one of the constructive aspects in the communication process, for communicating with other people. To listen well is a talent that is learned. However, for people to listen effectively, they would need to practice to obtain the skill. “As with any new skill, learning to listen takes effort, attention, and practice” (Stewart, 2006, p. 202).Listening skills allow people to make sense of and understand what another person is saying. In other words, listening skills allow people to identify with the meaning of what other people are talking about.
Listening skills is a skill that is a useful sensible approach for doing what is appropriate when it comes to communicating with other people. In today’s society, listening has become a modern way of life since people are always listening to something, such as the television, the radio, or merely a conversation with family and friends. Stewart (2006) comments that “about 45 percent of our day are spent on listening” (p. 199). However, the attention span for some people needs improvement, especially if they are easily distracted.
Consistency should be a concept of listening and the only way to make this happen is by practice. In other words, people can develop a habit to be able to communicate their knowledge of what the other person is talking about. For example, if a speaker talks about the need to improve various types of environmental issues in our society, the listener or receiver should be able to execute his or her listening skills to clarify what was addressed by questioning and summarizing the speaker’s theory.
The following characterizations are based on listening skills: awareness, interpretation, and questioning. Although developing listening skills is a matter of choice, it is imperative everyone accomplish effective listening habits to avoid misunderstanding in all relationships.
The first aspect of listening is to learn how to listen effectively. In today’s society, communicating appropriately has everything to do with listening effectively. Learning to be a good listener will help improve all relationships both professionally and personally. If people do not know how to listen well, they can easily be distracted and their mind will start to wander. Since listening plays an essential role in the communication process, developing listening skills are important because they will help interpret what the speaker is saying during feedback. In other words, the listener should be able to respond to what the speaker talked about for clarification purposes.
There are three types of listening strategies that would be beneficial to ensure effective communication with other people. Hybels and Weaver (2007) state that “active listening, critical listening, and empathic listening are three different tactics that can be used in diverse situations” (p. 92). For instance, critical listeners focal point is to listen with determination and an open mind. They need to recognize and expect to learn something new from the speaker and ask questions about their viewpoints, such as an election. Critical listeners analyze the statement of all the members involved to decide who to vote for. In other words, critical listeners’ need to try to understand the speaker’s speech before they evaluate the information.
A second instance is that of empathic listeners. Their center of attention involves listening with emotion-they actually understand and can relate to how the speaker is feeling. I actually had an overwhelming experience concerning this specific aspect of effective listening. For example, after my husband passed away two years ago, I expressed my emotions with my mom often. My mom always listened with full attention to my tone of voice and other relevant signals, such as body language and facial expression-she was able to see and feel the message I was sharing about the ordeal I was going through. My mom listened patiently and shared the pain and love I had for my husband. Moreover, my mom could relate to the emotions I was feeling about the passing of my husband, since she experienced similar emotions when her mom passed away in 1990. In other words, empathic listeners attempt to imagine what the speaker had gone through. Consequently, empathic listeners usually lead the conversation to self-disclosure, which is when “people tell each other something personal they would not disclose to everyone” (Hybels & Weaver, 2007 p. 168).
The final instance for listening types is that of active listeners, which entails reflection. Specifically, active listeners listen intensively to the speaker so that they would be able to express what was said, by paraphrasing or summarizing their statement. Furthermore, active listeners repeat in their own words what the speaker discussed for clarification purposes.
Overall, people listen to acquire information and the impact of these listening techniques will certainly lead to thriving professional and personal relationships.
The second aspect of listening is to avoid the barriers to efficient listening. Since words can be influential, there are some issues that may get in the way of listening effectively, such as bias, accents, and noise. These specific matters will result in poor listening communication because there are some people who are collective listeners because of their favoritism toward specific speakers; the language is not clear due to diverse accents, and depending on the surroundings, the interference of loud sounds.
In addition, there are other barriers that can make listening difficult as well. Hybels and Weaver (2007) note that, “most people are not ready to listen well, physically, mentally, and behaviorally” and adds that some people are too lazy to listen, some avoid eye contact while listening, and some have a very short attention span” (p. 88). Since these are some of the most mutual obstacles to effective listening, to learn how to listen will take practice and diligence to obtain concentration. However, there are some valuable strategies people could do to avoid listening barriers, such as preparing to listen with appropriate eye contact, concentrating on what the speaker is saying to determine the speaker’s meaning, and taking notes to consider what was discussed. In short, “â€¦savor the conversationâ€¦” (Stewart, 2006 p. 201).
Ideally, there are plenty of barriers that occur to block people from listening properly. Once awareness is accomplished, people will be able to avoid these barriers easily.
The last aspect of listening is how to manage interpersonal conflict. Conflict occurs in most relationships-professional and personal and conflict can cause resentment and possibly the ending of a relationship as well. People embrace different ways to face conflict and to learn how to manage conflict involves being able to adhere the positive aspect of the relationship, which is to listen well. For example, I actually witnessed an incident when two doctors disagreed on a prognosis on a specific patient, which lead to an interpersonal conflict. After exchanging a few words, the doctors began to become agitated and verbally attacked each other. At this point, both doctors did not want to listen, instead, they both wanted to talk. The approach these doctors were using was not an effective way to handle conflict.
Hence, it is obvious skillful communication was not enforced in this situation. Accordingly, “all interpersonal interactions can learn how to improve their relationships by discussing how to find a resolution for their discord” (Hybels & Weaver, 2007 p. 202,203). In this professional environment, proper conflict management should have been applied because at this point, the company’s image may be at stake.
A final example of interpersonal conflict is lack of communication because lack of effective communication can result in interpersonal variation. For instance, a few months ago my relationship with a friend dispersed because of an emotional distance. The one -year date of his mom’s passing was approaching and my friend said that he had some personal issues to resolve and decided to try to handle them on his own. Since I was bothered by his unsettling actions, I continued to show my concern. Therefore, I suggested my friend talk about what was troubling him. In most situations, both partners would want to talk and not listen. In this case, I was willing to listen, but my friend refused to talk. In short, my friend was not ready to open up and listen to reason and continued with his depressing distance. Therefore, the relationship was dissolved because of the interaction conflict.
Assuredly, to resolve interpersonal conflict in our society, an appropriate balance between personal ambition and optimistic conduct must be developed. Since the act of resolving conflict is a skill that can be taught, determination can help people blossom through their actions and help them receive respect in his or her life. Furthermore, there are effective communication methods to improve interpersonal conflict and to resolve interpersonal conflict following interaction techniques will be helpful:
Encouragement-encourages each person to share their concerns
Simplicity-ask questions to avoid misunderstandings
Recognition-observe accurately to provide clear feedback
However, conflict can lead to a deeper understanding and closeness between each person. In essence, “[many interpersonal conflicts] can be traced to problems in listeningâ€¦” (Hybels & Weaver, 2007 p. 86). The main cause of interpersonal conflict is that both partners want to talk and no one is willing to listen. While resolving interpersonal conflict is a work-in-progress, people should start focusing on how to listen, which will eventually lead to constructive relationships.
In summary, the stance of listening skills is important to analyze and review what the speaker discussed. In other words, when an interest is made known about what was conversed, the listener would be able to summarize the main points and supporting details of the speaker. Hence, listening is an active and productive process, which is an attribute people should practice in their professional and personal lives. Moreover, good listening skills builds a foundation as a means of learning that involves consistency in all areas in life. However, if people engage in poor listening habits, misunderstandings will arise and they will not understand the speaker sufficiently to respond efficiently.
Since conflict materializes in both professional and personal relationships, it is best to have a face-to-face encounter because each person can benefit by enhancing their listening habits, such as eye contact and body language. Depending on the situation, the three learning styles, active listening, critical listening, and empathic listening should suffice for effective communication.
On a final note, while listening skills consist of paying attention to words and interpreting those spoken words correctly, people can develop a creative character as they express such a rewarding attribute. In addition, when people gain listening skills, it is an impressive tool for learning new concepts about other people. Above all, the perception of listening is his or her personal choice if they decide to be an effective interpersonal communicator.
In this interim report, I am going to talk about the topic of my project, aims of the project, tasks performed, project timeline, discussions and conclusions. The topic of my project is CFD ANALYSIS OF WINGLETS. When I decided to choose this project I had no idea about the winglets. Therefore, I have read a lot of about winglets. I needed to learn enough about them such as what they are, where they are used, how winglets work, why they are used in many aircrafts, how many types of winglets are there, which is the most used, winglets benefitsâ€¦etc. These questions will be answered later.
On section 2 aims and deliverables, I talk about what I could do in my project to be a brilliant project and what I have to do to achieve it.
On section 3, I will attempt to explain what the winglets are, for that I post several images. Different types of winglets and their internal structure will be studied on the second and third point. On the next point, I talk about winglets dimensions and winglet airfoil. For that, an image is shown with a classic winglet design and three winglets airfoil are shown too. On point 3.5, winglets technology is explained. Finally, blended winglets (are the most popular winglets, as you can check later) features and benefits are explained. This is the section 3, analysis of tasks.
A Gantt chart will be shown to check project timeline and progress to date. My interim report finishes with discussion and conclusions.
2. AIMS AND DELIVERABLES
With my project, I will demonstrate winglets are tools that improve the aircraft’s performance. For that, I will attempt to demonstrate winglets reduce the aerodynamic drag so fuel consumption goes down. I will analyze a wing with and without winglet and the creation of a vortex near at the wingtip could be checked. My knowledge and skills are not very deep in fluent and gambit so I need to improve them. Thus, this improvement will also be an important objective. Three winglets airfoil will be analyzed in Gambit and Fluent and their results will be discussed with my supervisor. These winglets airfoil are shown on section 3.4.2.
3. ANALYSIS OF TASKS
3.1 WINGLET DEFINITION
Winglets are vertical extensions of wingtips that improve an aircraft’s fuel efficiency and cruising range. Designed as small airfoils, winglets reduced the aerodynamic drag associated with vortices that develop at the wingtips as the airplane moves through the air. By reducing wingtip drag, fuel consumption goes down and range is extended. Aircraft of all types and sizes are flying with winglets. From single-seat hang gliders and ultralights to global jumbo jets. Some aircraft are designed and manufactured with sleek upturned winglets that blend smoothly into the outer wing sections.
The concept of winglets originated with a British aerodynamist in the late 1800s, but the idea remained on the drawing board until rekindled in the early 1970s by Dr. Richard Whitcomb when the price of aviation fuel increased.
Fig.3.1.1: Vortex wingtip with and without winglet.
Winglets reduce wingtip vortices, the twin tornados formed by the difference between the pressure on the upper surface of an airplane’s wing and that on the lower surface. High pressure on the lower surface creates a natural airflow that makes its way to the wingtip and curls around it.
Since the 1970s, when the price of aviation fuel began spiralling upward, airlines and aircraft manufactures have looked at many ways to improve the operating efficiency of their aircraft. Winglets have become one of the industry’s most visible fuel saving technologies and their use continues to expand.
Their main functions are: improved wing efficiency translates to more payload, reduced fuel consumption (about 4% in many flights when the distance to crossing is more than 1800 Km.), and a longer cruising range that can allow an air carrier to expand routes and destinations.
The figures, reproduced below, are showing two images about winglets.
Fig.3.1.2: The figure reproduced above shows winglets.
Fig.3.1.3: Winglets in cars.
With winglets aerodynamic drag goes down, so these components are often used in car industry. Winglets are used in cars of high range or even in formula 1.
3.2 TYPES OF WINGLETS
In general any wingtips that not end the wing simply horizontally are considered as some kind of a winglet. Even though in strictly technical terms Wingtip Fences are not real extensions of the wing, and Raked Wingtips do not have a vertical part, they are still widely considered as winglet variants. We can distinguish three types of winglets: wingtip fences, blended winglets and raked wingtips. The differents types of winglets are explained showing various images and commenting on the aircraft in which they are used.
3.2.1 WINGTIP FENCE
They are a special variant of winglets that extend both upward and downward from the tip of the wing. Preferred by European plane-maker Airbus, it is featured on their full product range (except the A330/340 family and the future A350). The Airbus A300 was actually the first jet airliner to feature this kind of solution by default, but it was a very small version of the tool. Provided that most of the Airbus planes (including all A320 family jets) feature such wingtip fences, this may be the most seen and most produced winglet type. Even the new Airbus A380 double-decker features wingtip fences.
Fig.184.108.40.206: Airbus Winglets as seen from the outsider.
Fig.220.127.116.11: Airbus Winglets as seen from onboard.
3.2.2 BLENDED WINGLETS
They are knowing as the real “Winglets”. They are the most popular winglet type, leveraged by Airbus, Boeing, Embraer and Bombardier but also by Russian Tupolev and Iljushin. Blended winglets were first introduced on the McDonnel Douglas MD-11 aircraft in 1990 with launch customer Finnair (it also features a smaller winglet at the bottom side of the wing). In contrast to Airbus who applies the wingtip fences by default on most of their aircraft (and the winglets on the A330/340 family), blended winglets are considered by Boeing for example as an optional extra feature on their products, except for the Boeing 747-400. For some of the older Boeing jets (737 and 757) such blended winglets have been offered as an aftermarket retrofit, these are the newer, tall designs and do not connect to the tip of the wing with a sharp angle, but with a curve instead. These winglets are popular among airlines that fly these aircraft on medium/long haul routes as most of the real fuel savings materialize while cruising. Longer flights mean longer cruising, thus larger fuel savings. And they also server as marketing surface for airline logos or web addresses usually.
141 ship sets have been pre-sold already as the forecasted fuel avings range around 4%-6% for medium/long-range flights. Airbus earlier tested similar blended winglets designed by Winglet Technology for the A320 series, but determined that their benefits did not warrant further development and they stayed with the wingtip fences instead. Aviation Partners Boeing claims that winglets on 737s and 757s have saved a collective 1.2 billion gal. of fuel since they were introduced and 11.5 million tonnes of CO2 while reducing those types’ noise footprint by 6.5%. It has sold winglets to 140 airlines and 95% of all 737NGs are fitted with them.
Fig.18.104.22.168: Blended Winglets on Several Aircraft Types.
3.2.3 RAKED WINGTIPS
They are the most recent winglet variants (they are probably better classified as special wings), where the tip of the wing has a higher degree of sweep than the rest of the wing. They are widely referred to as winglets, but they are better described as integrated wingtip extensions as they are (horizontal) additions to the existing wing, rather than the previously described (near) vertical solutions. The stated purpose of this additional feature is to improve fuel economy, climb performance and to shorten take off field length. It does this in much the same way as “traditional” winglets do. In testing by Boeing and NASA, raked wingtips have been shown to reduce drag by as much as 5.5%, as opposed to improvements of 3.5% to 4.5% from conventional winglets. Airliners to use raked wingtips: Boeing 747-8, Boeing 767-400ER, Boeing 777 (-200LR; -300ER; and freighter versions) plus the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the Airbus A350. The 747-8, the 787 and the A350 will have special, new kind of wings, which do not have a separate winglet, but have raked, and blended wingtips integrated without a sharp angle between the wing and the winglet.
Fig.22.214.171.124: Raked Wingtips on the new Boeing 787 and Airbus A350.
3.2.4 WING VORTEX ELIMINATOR
This is a special type of winglet. A type exists of winglet that is capable of neutralizing the vortex, this winglet is named Wing Vortex Eliminator, and consists of a pipe that canalizes the air mass that happens for the top of the wing, redirecting and avoiding that the air masses of the lower surface and upper surface come together of turbulent form.
Fig.126.96.36.199: Wing vortex Eliminator.
The following figure shows a summary with the types of winglets and different
aircrafts where they are used.
Fig.3.2.1: Types of winglets.
3.3 INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A WINGLET
Fig.3.3.1: Winglet structure.
The winglets are aerodynamic surfaces, with an inner structure usually two beams (they are horizontal beams that cover the wings from the insert to the end), a pair of ribs (beams perpendicular to the previous ones to stiffen the structure), and two cloths or outer flat plates that bear the way out. Depending on the type of aircraft or manufacturer, these structures are half-metal or half metal composite material. Are embedded in the wing tip, integrating in their structure, so that only removed if a problem is detected or corrosion.
3.4 WINGLETS DIMENSIONS AND WINGLET AIRFOIL
When I have to built winglets for CFD analysis these dimensions will not be enough. I do not include more images because they are very big. I will need to check websites where I can see general dimensions of an aircraft such as Boeing’s or Airbus’ websites.
Fig.188.8.131.52: Classic winglet design.
3.4.2 WINGLET AIRFOIL
The winglet airfoil must be design with the following criteria in mind:
* To minimize drag at low CL conditions.
* To design the winglet airfoil to be tolerant of low Re.
* To maximize tolerance to negative alpha.
The images, reproduced below, show several winglets airfoil.
Fig.184.108.40.206: winglet airfoil PSU-90-125WL.
Fig.220.127.116.11: winglet airfoil E197.
Fig.18.104.22.168: winglet airfoil MH 201.
These winglets airfoil will be used in CFD analysis.
3.5 WINGLETS TECHNOLOGY
Total pressure of an incompressible fluid is the sum of static and dynamic pressure. The laws of kinetic energy govern dynamic pressure. The difference in air pressure between the lower and upper surfaces of a wing causes the air to escape around the wingtip, which reduces the available lift or the aerodynamic drag increases. The motion of the air rushing around the wingtip causes a vortex to form near the wingtip. The tip vortices cause upwash and downwash air currents that alter the direction of the free stream flow around the wing.
Fig.3.5.1: Vortex at the wingtip.
When an air mass is crossed by a wing that air mass is separated into two streams: a stream passes through the bottom of the wing and the other stream passes through the top of the wing. Both meet at the trailing edge. However, in the wing tip the same phenomenon, but unlike the previous two air flows converge before reaching the trailing edge creating a turbulence so-called vortex.
A vortex is created near the wingtip. Thus, it is necessary put a barrier at the wingtip. This is the concept of winglets. Winglet attracted to him the vortex and it is deflected far over the wing. Therefore, the aerodynamic drag is reduced.
The winglet has a tip, just like a wing, so it also produces a tip vortex, albeit a much weaker one. The winglets tip vortex is located far above the airflow over the wing, thus it has a little influence on the airflow over the main wing. They look like vortex diffusers.
The installation of well-designed winglets can improve the performance of an aircraft, however, the following aspects are critical:
1) The design must be strongly customized to each new configuration;
2) Winglets introduce additional weight;
3) They increase the wing root bending moment;
4) Efficiency is proportional to the lift coefficient;
5) They can alter the aerodynamics in critical regions (ailerons);
6) Winglets are expensive.
3.6 FEATURES AND BENEFITS
3.6.1 REDUCED ENGINE MAINTENANCE COSTS
Better climb performance also allows lower thrust settings, thus extending engine life and reducing maintenance costs.
REDUCING THRUST WILL:
Slow EGT deterioration, which prolongs on-wing life between engine shop visits.
Reduce fuel flow deterioration, which results in lower fuel burn.
Lower maintenance costs by increasing time between shop visits (longer on-wing life).
Takeoff thrust typically reduced by 3%.
Cruise thrust typically reduced by 4%.
3.6.2 LOWER BLOCK FUEL
Winglets lower drag and improve aerodynamic efficiency, thus reducing fuel burn. Depending on the missions you fly, blended winglets can improve cruise fuel mileage up to 6 percent, especially important during a time of rising fuel prices. They are saving a minimum of 4% on fuel and up to 6% on our longer flights.
FUEL SAVINGS FOR CONVERTED FLEET
As of mid-October 2006, Aviation Partners and Aviation Partners Boeing have equipped over 1,400 aircraft with Blended Winglets. They conservatively estimate that these aircraft are saving:
146,550,000 gallons per year.
401,507 gallons per day.
16,729 gallons per hour.
279 gallons per minute.
4.6 gallons per second.
POTENTIAL ANNUAL FUEL SAVINGS PER AIRPLANE
Up to 110,000 gallons
Up to 130,000 gallons
Up to 150,000 gallons
Up to 100,000 gallons
Up to 300,000 gallons
767-300ER (PD Study)
Up to 500,000 gallons
Table 22.214.171.124: this table shows fuel saved in Boeing´s airplane.
3.6.3 HIGHER INITIAL & OPTIMAL CRUISE ALTITUDES
Winglet equipped airplanes can achieve higher operational altitudes than the baseline non-winglet equipped airplane. This results in the following:
Winglet equipped airplanes can achieve higher initial altitudes eliminating the requirement for initial level-off altitudes.
Winglet equipped airplanes can achieve approximately 1,200 ft higher optimal altitudes than non-winglet equipped airplanes.
3.6.4 PERMANENT FUEL PRICE HEDGE
With uncertainty in fuel supplies and the continuing increase in demand, the potential for higher fuel prices cannot be ignored.
Consider the average customer for the following:
Average Yearly Fuel Savings
(gallons per year)
for a $0.10 Increase
in Price per Gallon
Up to 110,000 gallons
Up to $11,000 per year
Up to 130,000 gallons
Up to $13,000 per year
Up to 150,000 gallons
Up to $15,000 per year
Up to 100,000 gallons
Up to $10,000 per year
Up to 300,000 gallons
Up to $30,000 per year
Up to 500,000 gallons
Up to $50,000 per year
3.6.5 INCREASED PAYLOAD / RANGE CAPACITY
The addition of Aviation Partners Blended Winglets has demonstrated drag reduction in the 5 to 7% range that measurably increases range and fuel efficiency. In addition, the Blended Winglets allow commercial aircraft to take off from higher, hotter airports with increased payload. This enables you to fly farther nonstops or to complete shorter missions with greater payloads and fuel reserves.
3.6.6 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
Winglets offer the opportunity not only to improve an airplanes operation performance but also its environmental performance.
Airport Noise Levels can be dramatically affected with the installation of Winglets:
Noise-affected area on takeoff reduced by 6.5 %.
Take-off and approach certified noise levels are lowered.
Lower fuel burn also equates to reduced emissions.
Up to a 6% reduction in CO2 and as much as a 8% reduction in NOx is possible.
3.6.7 IMPROVED TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE
By allowing a steeper climb, winglets pay off in better takeoff performance, especially from obstacle-limited, high, hot, weight-limited, and/or noise-restricted airports. Performance Improved climb gradients increase 737-800 allowable takeoff weight (TOW).
SOME EXAMPLES INCLUDE:
– Chicago-Midway: ~1,600 lb additional TOW.
– Lanzarote (Canary Islands): ~3,500 lb additional TOW.
– Albuquerque, Denver, and Salt Lake City: ~4,400 lb additional TOW.
4. PROJECT TIMELINE
With the Gantt chart, you can see the tasks done to date and the future tasks. I will try to follow it and I hope to finish my project on April.
As you can see, on the first weeks of my project I have been finding out information about winglets. The first two weeks, I answered two questions; what are the winglets? and what are their main function?. About tenth of November, I started to collect images of winglets and began to understand winglets technology. The following week, winglet design was studied. From my presentation, I made these tasks; airfoil winglets, types of winglets and features and benefits.
From now, I have to do CFD analysis of winglets. I will start in 2-D with winglet airfoil and will finish in 3-D. Winglet airfoil will be imported into a data file to a gambit where the mesh geometry and boundary types will be created. Finally, a file .msh will be created in gambit and it will be exported to fluent where the winglet airfoil will be analyzed. The procedure is the same in 3-D, however the geometry of the aircraft will be set up in Solid Edge or Catia V5 and it will be exported to gambit.
5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
As you have witnessed in this interim report the winglets improve the performance of an aircraft by reducing the aerodynamic drag and therefore the fuel consumption decreases. However, when designing winglets we should take into account aspects such as they are expensive or they increase the wing root bending moment. There are also people who think the winglets are unnecessary and break up the aesthetic of the plane. There are several types of winglets and the blended winglet is the most popular winglet type. Features and benefits of blended winglet have been discussed (http://www.aviationpartnersboeing.com/index.html).
In these first few weeks of work I have tried to to collect enough information about winglets and I reported about how they work, because they break the vortex generated at the wingtip vortex and how it is generated. I am looking forward to start my analysis with fluent and gambit, but my limited knowledge in CFD, stopped me. I feel I am ready to start working with fluent and gambit since these programs have been explained in class successfully.
The respiratory system, composed of different structures, is involved in ventilation and gas exchange. Its main function is to provide a surface for gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide . Gas exchange is performed at the alveoli, specialised cells which are part of the lung parenchyma. It provides oxygen to the blood and removes the carbon dioxide produced in the body as a product of cellular metabolism; for the oxygen to reach the lungs there must be a series of tubular structures that communicate with the outside. The diagram below shows a block diagram of the anatomic structure for the respiratory system (Fig. 1).
Figure Block diagram of the Respiratory System anatomic structure
Air diffusion into these channels is conducted by the respiratory muscles (intercostals and diaphragm) which increase and decrease rhythmically the size of the thoracic cavity (inspiration and expiration). The pleural cavity contributes on this phenomenon when its negative pressure opposes the elastic recoil of the lung; this action gives place to a conductive portion of the system, whose function is to allow air penetration. In addition the respiratory portion composed bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli; establishes homeostasis.
Figure Muscles and Pressures involved during breathing
The ventilation of the lungs can be measured by studying a gas volume and its variations in the lungs . Boyle’s, Charles’, Dalton’s and Henry’s law of gasses are critical in the understanding of gas exchange, measurement of gas movement take an important part in mechanical ventilation. During breathing movements are cyclic, and volume in the thoracic cavity is changed by the muscles mention before. During inspiration the pressure within the thoracic cavity and lungs is decreased and the same time the volume is increased, allowing air flow in. On the other hand during expiration the elastic lungs and the thoracic wall recoils producing an increase of pressure but a decrease in volume; allow letting air flow out (Fig. 1).
Figure Respiratory performance and volume relationships
At the same time, inhalation and exhalation allow the mobilization of the volume of gas which can vary depending on the type of respiratory movement and lung elastic forces. Lung capacities are defined by the sum of different volumes. Figure 2 shows a graphic representation of the respiratory performance volume relationships. FCR (Functional Residual Capacity) represents the remaining air after a cycle. VT (Tidal Volume) is the flux of air in a normal inspiration and expiration. IRV (Inspiratory Reserve Volume) is the amount of air moved during a maximum and forced inspiration and results over the Tidal Volume. Similar to IVR, ERV (Expiratory Reserve Volume) is the amount of air mobilised during a maximum and force expiration resulting below the Tidal Volume. The vital capacity is the sum of IRV, VT, and ERV. VR (Residual Volume) as its name says, is the amount of air remained in lungs after a maximum exhalation. The IC (Inspiratory Capacity) is the flux of air after a quiet cycle. And finally the TLC (Total Lung Capacity) corresponds to the total volume of gas remaining in the lung after a maximal and forced inspiration. Volumes and lung capacities may be altered in different diseases; its measurement is a critical element for diagnosis, performed by pulmonary function tests.
The respiratory parameters: compliance, lung elasticity, intrathoracic pressure, airway resistance, intra-alveolar pressure; help measure the strength in muscles when breathing.
Airway resistance is determined by the Poiseuille Law (eq. 1):
Where Î· represents the viscosity of the fluid, l is the longitude in the airways, and r is the radio on the airways. Resistance has a great significance in pulmonary physiology; and it is analysed by the ratio of the pressure differential flow. The airway resistance can be increased significantly in the presence of disease such as Bronchitis, Asthma, and Emphysema among others. In addition a great amount of patients admitted to intensive care have need of some form of respiratory support; due primarily to hypoxaemia or ventilatory failure. Respiratory support ranges from oxygen therapy by face mask, through non-invasive techniques such as continuous positive airways pressure, to full ventilatory support with endotracheal intubation.
Figure Block Diagram of a basic mechanical ventilator
A mechanical ventilator is an automatic machine, designed to provide all or part of the work the body must produce to move air (gas) from the inside to the outside and vice versa. Furthermore mechanical ventilators are designed to transmit energy applied in a predetermined manner to perform a specific task. Interface between machine and patient stable, energy source, control system (for timing and size of the breaths regulations) and monitoring (device performance and patient’s condition) are the general requirements for ventilators (Fig. 4).
A further analysis as well as comparison of this equipment will be made along the paper, with the purpose of a better understanding of its designed and future developments.
Current State of the Art
Since the invention of artificial respiratory supply, mechanical ventilators have evolved in the past 40 years. There are five generations of mechanical ventilators where changes have been made in order to present a better apparatus.
The first generation consisted of only one mode of ventilation, and the electronics used was primitive compared to the one used nowadays. The equipment was no safe since the control with the user was not precise and it did not count with any alarm system.
The second generation provided basic alarms, containing electronic circuitry as well as an analogue control of fluid.
A major evolution took place on the third generation; digital electronics, microprocessors, were employed for most of the functions.
The fourth generation included modern displays such as CRT or LCD ensuring a better patient care.
The generation currently used is the fifth generation which features a better onscreen display control. It is also made by advanced logarithms that permit graphic display, calculation of lung’s mechanical properties, and system diagnostics.
Principles of Operation
Mechanical ventilation is all different types of procedures that provide artificial respiration employing machinery to meet the respiratory function of a person who cannot perform it by itself . In addition Mechanical Ventilation (MV) is the product of interaction between a ventilator and a patient, and through this equipment parameters of volume, flow, pressure and time are controlled. Considered as a generator of positive pressure that supplies active phase of the respiratory cycle; there are basically four types of MV: controlled by pressure, time, volume and flow.
Mechanical ventilation systems create an intermittent positive pressure where air or a gas mixture enriched in oxygen is insufflated in the patient’s airway. Pressure in the airway at the end of passive expiration and that at the same time goes beyond atmospheric pressure is known as positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) . PEEP is extremely important in effects and mechanisms of the respiratory system. It plays major roles in gas exchange, lung mechanics, and hemodynamic effects. Some effects in lung mechanics it prevents the lung from collapsing, increases FRC among others. In order to provide respiratory support, a MV such as the one in figure is used.
Figure Flow and control of gas exchange during artificial ventilation
Input of this system provides O2 as a medicinal gas; and in the case of portable ventilators the medicinal gas can be supplied by a dry air compressor. Ventilatory gas is passed through a pressure regulator; which is in charge of preserving the preset pressure for the inspiratory gas and ensures the integrity of the airway. The gas flown to the patient is allocated by an electro-valve (Fig. 5); this remains energised until the end of the inspiratory time previously programmed, when de-energised the gas flow is ceased. Finally the expiratory electro-valve is activated causing the air exhaled by the patient to be expelled to the environment by a biological filter that prevents the contamination of this.
Models of Ventilator-Patient Interaction
Figure Model representing breathing, were a rigid flow conducting tube is connected to an elastic compartment
The Respiratory System can be modelled to illustrate the relations amongst the variables of interest; providing a better understanding of patient-equipment interaction. The model most frequently used is shown in figure where a rigid flow conducting tube is connected to an elastic compartment .
When airway pressure goes higher than the base line, the inspiration is assisted (Fig. 6)The Transrespiratory pressure (eq.2) leads inspiration, and is the pressure at the airway opening, ,minus the pressure at the body surface:
At the same time has two components, transairway pressure (eq. 3) and transthoracic pressure (eq. 4):
A mathematical model that represents volume, pressure and flow during ventilation is known as the equation of motion for the respiratory system  (eq. 5) :
Where is the pressure generated by the ventilator, is the pressure generated by the ventilator muscles, is the respiratory system elastance, is the respiratory system resistance, and is lung volume where the derivate of volume with respect of time is the flow in the system. Table (1) compares typical values against values during mechanical ventilation .
Table Pressures and Volumes during Mechanical ventilation
The model provides the basis for monitoring the patient’s current condition, and it is done in terms of R and E which are mechanical properties.
Figure Electrical model representing breathing composed of a RC circuit
Another model used for representation is the electrical model (Fig. 7); this model is analogous to an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor and a capacitor (RC circuit), a power supply, which in this case represents the pressure generated by a mechanical ventilator. The electric current stands for the flow of air in the system. In this model, pressure, volume and flow are variables (functions of time) while the resistance and compliance are constant . Second Law of Kirchooff can be used to analyse the electrical model and the following equation(eq. 6) can be derived:
Current and charge can be related by , the electrical parameters of the circuit can be now represented by the ventilator variables. When applying a pressure to the input of the system (output pressure of the ventilator), the volume varies according to the following differential equation (eq. 7) the total pressure applied is equal to the sum of the differences in pressure due to the compliance of the system and to the resistance of the airway:
According to this system is the output pressure of the ventilator, the inspiratory volume, and is the compliance of the lung .
Mechanical ventilators count with different operating modes, which are the manner the ventilator ensures that the patient is provided by the appropriate minute ventilation; satisfying the respiratory needs without damaging any pulmonary tissue. Operating modes can be identified by: breathing pattern, Control type, Control Strategy .
When specifying just the breath control variable (Primary Breath Control), there are three approaches: pressure control, volume control and dual control modes. Pressure control (PC) is used when patients can initiate respiration; pressure in the airway is increased during inspiration. Volume control (VC) employs a control system to guarantee that a set tidal volume is distributed during the inspiratory cycle. The Dual Control (DC) is simply a combination of both, used in order to provide minute ventilation while maximizing patient synchrony.
Breath sequence is the other component of breathing pattern operating mode. There are two ways airflow can be delivered using this mode, mandatory or spontaneous. The difference between the two of these is that on mandatory breath the ventilator initiates and establishes the tidal volume, Vt. Contrary to mandatory breath on spontaneous breath the patient establishes and starts its own breathing. From these, three different modes of breath sequence can be delivered: Continuous Mandatory Ventilation (CMV), Continuous Spontaneous Ventilation (CSV), and Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (IMV). CVM and CSV, all breaths are mandatory or spontaneous respectively; however in IMV breaths can be either mandatory or spontaneous .
In order to select breathing mode and ventilation pattern parameters, controls are used. There are two different ways on which breathing can be controlled, and at the same time there are control strategies which depend on the variables and parameters set to obtain this. A system can be controlled by an open loop or closed loop (Fig. 8). Like any open loop system, there is no feedback, and the system could be affected by mechanical changes in the lungs, patient’s ventilatory efforts and leaks .
Figure Control systems used for mechanical ventilation
Closed loop sense breathing variables such as pressure, volume, and flow to provide a feedback signal which is compared to the desired value set at the input. There are different types of closed loop systems depending on the number of variables used.
The instruments used to measure volume-flow rate are referred to as volume flowmeters; they may be classified as rotameters, penumotachographs, hot-wire anemometers, time-of-flight flowmeters, ultrasonic flowmeters, and vortex flowmeters . Depending on their principle of operation, flowmeters can be classified in four main categories: rotating-vane, ultrasonic, thermal-convection, and differential pressure flowmeters.
These types of sensors contain a small motor or turbine which rotates with airflow, and then flow rate is related to the revolution of the rotor. This type of flowmeter is commonly used in ventilator machines and respiratory monitoring . The spins are detected optically and converted into voltage to be recorded or displayed.
Ultrasonic flowmeters can measure instantaneous flow and the effect of the flowing gas on the transit time of the ultrasonic signal . A crystal is used for transmitting and receiving and it is placed externally and obliquely to the axis of the tube through which the gas flows . The time elapsed will depend not only on the velocity, but on the temperature as well as composition of the gas analysed. One main advantage of this type of transducer is that unidirectional flow can be measured, which is applicable for clinical monitoring.
Thermal sensing technologies are usually made of hot wires, metal film, and thermistol which all use heat to sense gas flow. The wires are heated by an electric current and the heat transfer is used to measure the gas flow . The wire is heated above flow gas temperature, to associate temperature differences; a metal mesh is placed at both ends of the tube. This type of sensing is limited to only one flow direction, more sensors can be located in the tube for multiple directions and for breathing a calibration factor must be considered. .
Differential Pressure Flowmeters
Flowmeters that use the relationship of pressure drop with airflow through a system. There include elements such flow resistors.
Figure Closed system during mechanical ventilation
The most common failures presented in MV are mainly as a consequence of poor maintenance and user error. Leaks in the circuit due to bad connections or due by perforations in tube are a frequent dysfunction. Leaks stop the proper delivery of tidal volume as well as an accurate sensing flow from the ventilator. PEEP can also be affected by this interfering with O2 saturation (Fig. 9).
At times, when an patient with intubation is not able to trigger the ventilator, or the ventilator senses by mistake a patient’s effort and delivers breaths, is known as patient-ventilator dyssynchrony. As a result the machine delivers an unsuitable breath to the rate of the patient’s inspiratory efforts. This type of error is also identified as trigger failure or desynchronisation, mismatching, and “fighting the ventilator” . One cause for patient-ventilator dyssynchrony is fixing the trigger sensitivity improperly. When a desynchronisation with the patient’s efforts to initiate a breath exists, work of breathing can occur which can be accompanied with respiratory distress preventing pulmonary gas exchange..
Another usual failure is due to user error with the interface. MVs are complex equipments, and the need of the clinician to be familiar with the machine is crucial. It is important that Mechanical Ventilators count with an audible and visual alarm when detecting a leakage or disconnection.
Possible hazards to humans
Problems may occur while using a mechanical ventilator, especially with patients that been required the use of a MV for a prolonged amount of time. The risks occasioned by the use of respiratory support can lead to severe harmful or even death. Common hazards that may occur due to the use of a ventilator are: infections, pneumothorax, and lung injury.
The most common risk reported is acquiring Ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is caused by an infection. The tube allows germ (bacteria) to penetrate more easily into the lungs. This can cause pneumonia. Pneumonia can be a serious problem and may mean that a person may not be able to initiate respiration leading to a longer use of a MV. In addition a recent study reported factors related such as the development of shock, and renal failure . In order to prevent infections a number of control procedures can be performed, and these include maintaining the ventilator as well as the breathing circuit .
Occasionally when a part of the lung is weak, this may become over full of air and as a result an air leak may occur. The leak allows air into the space between the lung and chest wall. The air in this region occupies space in a manner that the lung begins to collapse. If there is air leakage, a chest tube into is used to drain the excess air; allowing the lung to re-expand and stop the leak.
The pressure generated by introducing air into the lungs with a ventilator can damage the lungs. Furthermore, very high levels of oxygen can also be harmful to the lung. As a solution to try to keep this risk to a minimum the lowest pressure necessary as well as the only oxygen needed is supplied.
Prolonged intubation usually defined as a period longer than 48 hours  may lead to swallowing dysfunction. This is mainly caused by impairing glottic closure reflex, reducing subglottic pressure, limiting laryngeal elevation, desensitizing the larynx and hypopharynx, and causing disuse muscle atrophy of the larynx and pharynx .
Advantages and limitations of various techniques
Once analysed the principles of operations and risks of Mechanical Ventilators, for a better understanding of these is necessary to mention the advantages and disadvantages that they could bring. The impact MV have had over the past 40 years is massive due to the fact that mechanical ventilators provide vital support.
Nowadays ventilators found in the market present vast options in terms of modes, control and displays which in many cases can result complicated and the knowledge of these is required. In addition features need to be evaluated in order to establish which configuration mode is suitable for each patient . Ideally hospitals should acquire equipment that incorporates the latest development in ventilation; however as mention before this could lead to complications and misuse of the devices. Requesting companies training to all staff involved in the use, handling and care of the equipment helps to reduce the risk .The complicity of the equipment could be considered as a disadvantage of MV, nevertheless ventilators with good human factors design provide major advantage .
Mechanical ventilators, being devices that provide respiratory support the duration and need may vary from patient to patient; age is also an important factor as well as the condition. Ventilators are usually used in patients that are in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and after remaining in intubation after 48 hours the risk to the patient increases. Weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) permits patients to restart spontaneous breathing steadily; however some risks are involved  and are mentioned in section. Risks and hazards to patients should always be considered when dealing with medical devices; however the benefits that they bring play a major role. But still as an advantage mechanical ventilators as mentioned before, bring vital support where initiation of breathing or respiration cannot be performed by the patient.
Figure Piston pump in HFOV
Differences between each mechanical ventilator is defined by their operation mode which establish the flow pattern, pressure and volume delivered to the patient with the purpose of controlling alveolar ventilation and as a result achieve the goals of mechanical ventilation. Ventilation modes are determined by the combination of breathing pattern, type of ventilation and control. As for this MV operation mode is going to vary according to the age, and state of the patient, in a way that ventilation is provided and the risk is minimal. Requirements
As mentioned before, the continuous use of ventilators may induce injury to the lungs. Air strained outside the normal air spaces creates a swelling pressure that may injure alveoli. The name of this condition is Barotrauma, and malfunction to the mechanical ventilation may occur. High pressures or volumes during inspiration, or when extreme PEEP is used are causes of Barotrauma. There has not been found an association of clinical injury with the level of pressure used, the problem is estimated to be an over expedition of volume .
High frequency ventilation(HFV) is a ventilation strategy for patients with respiratory failure; providing a small source of tidal volumes (VT) which is in most of the cases less than the anatomic dead space volume, with respiratory rates above 150rpm. Modern Research studies have shown that HFV can help reduce barotraumas in normal and injured lungs .
Figure Flow during high frequency ventilation
HFV can be classified according to the source that generates their frequency and the type of exhalation phase; there are four types: High Frequency Jet Ventilation (HFJV), High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV), High Frequency Flow Interruption (HFFI), and High Frequency Positive Pressure Ventilation. The most commonly is used is the HFOV where in a continuous positive air pressure circuit the frequencies are oscillated by a piston pump (Fig. 10).
During inspiration, each high frequency pulse in the flow creates a profile shaped like a “bullet” (Fig. 11), with the central molecules moving on beyond the airway than those found in the periphery.
Table (2) describes and compares main differences between common ventilation and high frequency ventilation.
Table Comparison between HF ventilator and Conventional ventilator
Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz)
Frequency is measure in rpm
Uses Displacement Volume (Vd)
Uses Tidal Volume (Vt)
Volume per minute is measured:
Volume per minute is measured:
Medical Devices Available on the Market
There is a wide range of medical ventilators currently available on the market, and they all offer variety of options ranging in modes, variables monitored and ways of control  . Specific requirements and recommendations can be separated according to the complexity based on their performance.
Some of the most common brands available nowadays are listed in table (3), and they all offer ventilators that may vary according to specific needs.
Table Brands currently available
Evita 2 dura
INTER5 PLUS/ GMX
INTER PLUS VAPS/ GMX
Servo-S ( Adult: Pediatric)
PULMONETIC SYSTEMS/VYASIS HEALTHCARE
Siaretron 1000 ICU
Siaretron 1000 IPER
Siaretron 3000 ICU
TYCO HEALTHCARE PURITAN BENNETT
Future Stage of Development
Advanced features like recording and accurate and advanced predictions will come in a future state of development. In addition the ability to link multiple devices on one is now available, where the ventilator monitor can display lectures from other devices.
Portable devices are starting to become more common, they are light and compact devices. Important upgrades have been made to portable devices, where advanced features are now presented. Current portable ventilators present various modes of ventilation and longer power supply.
In order to avoid complexity, it is important when developing new features to consider the principal use of ventilators, which is respiratory supply. In addition for longer term care many features may not be used and costs can increase.
Mechanical ventilators are vital equipments that provide vital support to a patient. They provide artificial respiration to patients that cannot breathe on their own. Their principle of operation is based on mechanical exchange of gases, and their circuitry includes electro-valves for their control and flowmeters as transducers. MV can become very complex devices, training of clinicians using them is crucial in order to avoid risks to patients. Hazards to patients may occur when used for more than 48 hours, however new techniques like high frequency ventilation can reduce this. There is a wide range of devices present on the market and they all vary on their modes of operation. Portable devices are now popular and present important features. Mechanical ventilators are used every day in hospitals and represent a critical part on vital support.
Reading Shakespeare’s language can be a problem indeed for many people today. Untangling unusual sentence structures and recognizing and understanding poetic compression and wordplay is totally needed in order to be drenched in Shakespearean language. Obsolete words and many complex sentence structures lead many modern readers to think that they are reading Old or Middle English. In fact, both King James Bible and the works of William Shakespeare belong to the late phase of Early Modern English. 
As we are going to deal with Shakespeare’s language, we need to know that he invented over 1700 of our common words by changing nouns into verbs, changing verbs into adjectives, adding prefixes and suffixes, connecting words never before used together and so on. Perhaps that is one of the reasons why the language used in Shakespeare’s poems are so difficult to undestand.
Next, we are going to put an eye on Shakespeare’s work Hamlet. Really, what is going to be done is a study of the way characters manage to be undestood in the 17th century society, taking into account Shakespeare’s historical moment and his characteristic language to embellish texts. In addition, the role of people in general, customs, religion, the linguistic variety and so on will be a key point to make work better understanding.
2. Studying Hamlet in context
As it was said, our everyday speech is full of words and phrases invented by Shakespeare. He was able to do that because English was changing as people modernised it in their normal workday speech. As an example of this in Hamlet (1,3,7), (2,1,10) and (3,2,191) we point out three examples of Shakespearean coinages, among others.
English was being set free to go where writers wanted to take it in their poetry. And so did Shakespeare. He took it where he liked throughout all his texts, transforming the English language into what he really wanted. He liked playing with words. In the play Hamlet we find many examples of how he did it by supporting words with suffixes ending in ‘-ment’ (1,2,93) or in ‘-es’ (2,2,21), by using words indifferently (5,2,8), introducing rare words (3,2,65), changing adjectives into adverbs (1,1,174) and, what’s more, he was used to use the singular form of a word where modern usage would dictate the plural (1,3,101) and (5,2,2).
He is known for his wordplays. In (1,2,205-206) we find a sentence structure which is inverted with the object This and the adverbial phrase ‘to me/ In dreadful secrecy’ both preceding the verb and subject impart they did. Apart from wordplays he also use notoriously difficult phrases (1,1,62) and even obscure phrases as in (1,1,93), (3,2,130) or obsolete and colloquial word (1,1,102) and (5,1,263), respectively.
It is undeniably true that not everyone in the Elizabethan Period had the same access to education. Education, actually would begin at home, where children were taught the basic etiquette of proper manners and respecting others. It was necessary for boys to attend grammar school, but girls were rarely allowed to education, unless they belonged to a wealthy family.
So, as we can imagine, Shakespeare did not give the same skill and the same knowledge of language to a servant or to a soldier i.e. Reynaldo and Francisco, that to a person belonging to the ruling class i.e. Claudius and Hamlet. Cladius’s speech is rich with rhetorical figures ââ‚¬” as is Hamlet’s. In (1,2,1-5) we can see the King’s opening speech which has often been admired as a demonstration of his political skill. He is certainly masterly in his deployment of second person pronouns ââ‚¬” our, us, we ââ‚¬” which slide from the royal ‘we’ to include the whole Court in his discourse and to resonate with Greek polical speeches. While the language of Horatio, the guards and the gravediggers is simpler. Lots of examples of metaphors delivered by the King are founded, such as in (1,2,20) or (3,1,165).
Hamlet is the most skilled of all at rhetoric. His language is considered courtly, that means, an elaborated and witty discourse as recommended by Baldassare Castiglione’s 1528 guide The Courtier. In this work we find specifically advises royal retainers to amuse their masters with inventive language. And that is what Osric and Polonius exactly do.
Hamlet uses highly developed metaphors. Also, when occasion demands, he is precise and straightforward, as when he explains his inward emotion to his mother. At times, he relies heavily on puns to express his true thoughts while simultaneously concealing them. As an example of the different figures of speech used throughout the play , we have identified the following: analogy (2,2,352); asyndeton (1,2,77); irony (1,1,136); oxymoron (2,2,274); metaphor (1,1,30), among others.
Further to the variety of English linguistics, we must not confuse. Actually, Old English range from the 5th century to the middle of the 11th century and it is really closer to the Germanic mother tongue of the Anglo-Saxons. With the arrival of the French-speaking Normans in 1066, Old English underwent dramatic changes and by 1350 it had evolved into Middle English which is easier but still looks like a foreign language. By about 1450, Middle English was replaced with Early Modern English which is almost identical to contemporary English.
During Shakespeare’s lifetime, the former plural form ‘you’ was usurping many of the functions of the singular ‘thou’ and the distinctions between the two forms were not always marked, either by Shakespeare or by his printers (1,3,4). By contrast, ‘thou’ and ‘thee’ were used by people of higher rank to those beneath them, and by lower classes to each other (1,2,42-45); also, strangely enough, in addressing God, and in talking to witches, ghosts and other supernatural beings. As a refection of the higher status of males in the male/female context a husband might address his wife as ‘thou’ and she might replay respectfully with ‘you’.
The use of ‘thou’ and ‘you’ also had an emotional dimension. ‘Thou’ commonly expressed special intimacy or affection; ‘you’ , formality, politeness, and distance. ‘Thou’ might also be used by an inferior to a superior, to express such feelings as anger and contempt or to be insulting and this is one of the areas where Shakespeare is able to get extra levels of meaning by showing disrespect by one character for another’s status. The use of ‘thou’ to a person of equal rank could be used as an insult. Shakespeare was acutely aware of the way the Early Modern English language that he grew up with was changing and it is yet another way that he was able to create the levels of meaning that made him such an enduring writer. When students take the trouble to understand the use of the thees and thous they are able to appreciate the additional meaning rather than seeing them as a difficulty.
The period in which he lived was called the Elizabethan Period. Was filled with magic and sometimes terror. Pagan influence was present in literature and many of the superstitions outlasted the century and still exist today. Elizabeth’s religious policy shaped the future of the Anglican Church as a blend of Roman Catholicism and Genevan Protestantism (Calvinism). However, Elizabeth strove to be even-handed in dealing with infringements upon the law by either extreme, whether Puritan or Catholic, but allowed freedom of belief as long as it did not openly flout the law or promote sedition.
Hamlet was actually written at a time of religious upheaval. The play is alternately Catholic (or piously medieval) and Protestan (or concsiously modern). The Ghost describes himself as being in purgatory and as dying without last rites. This and Ophelia’s burial ceremony, which is characteristically Catholic, make up most of the play’s Catholic connection. Even revenge tragedies are known to be taken from traditionally Catholic countries, nevertheless according to the Catholic doctrine the strongest duty is to God and family and that may explain Hamlet’s conundrum: whether to revenge his father and kill Claudius or to leave the vengance to God, as his religion requires. If we pay serious attention to the work, we will realize that there are many references to Catholicism and Protestantism. In (1,1,151) Shakespeare indicates that the characters are Christians, a mixture of classical and Christian allusions was common at the time.
Much of the play’s Protestantism derives from its location in Denmark- predominantly Protestant country. The play does mention Wittenberg in (1,2,113), where Hamlet, Horatio, and Rosencrantz and Guildenster attend university, also where Martin Luther first proposed his 95 theses in 1517.
Finally, continuing with the Elizabethan era, Shakespeare does mention keywords that next are interpreted and put into context:
In (1,2,147) Shakespeare mentioned the Queen’s shoes which were made of cloth or perhaps very fine leather, as worn by Elizabethan Court ladies. Also in (2,1,75) Shakespeares talked about his characters as being dressed as in English Elizabethan people.
In (1,2,176) the word ‘studient’ is used in the same Elizabethan spelling.
In (1,3,36) an Elizabethan Court lady would also masked her face and hands from the sun.
In (1,5,11) Shakesperare named a traditional punishment in purgatory. Since punishments were thought, as in the classical Hades to fit the sins or crimes.
In (1,5,39), as in the Elizabethan belief, the tongue was the source of a snake’s poison rather than the teeth.
In (1,5,149) the space under the theatre was associated with hell as in the Elizabethan era.
Castiglione, Baldassare. (1528). The Courtier, Venice: Aldine Press.
Taylor, Neil et Thompson, Ann. (2006). The Tragical History of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, London: AS.
4.1. Internet Sources
Languages are changing as the world is constantly changing. After the Second World War, English neologisms emerged in a remarkable way. New vocabulary came into existence due to new technologies and new discoveries such as ; computing, internet , cell phones and the like. People’s daily activities like dancing, looking and many others, renewed their popularity giving birth to new lexicon. In deed, new words are invented rapidly and are developed quickly thanks to mass communication. They appear and fall into disuse when they have served their momentary purpose ( Bernhart 54).Only a few of them will get recorded in glossaries of neologisms of general dictionaries.
The matter of neologism becomes a new hot spot of research owing to its practical and prevailing use in reality. The study of neologisms evoked a whole cluster of questions:
-What are the reasons beyond the rise of new lexicon?
-Why are some new words just a flash in a pan?
-Why are other words successful?
-What are the qualities that make a word successful?
-Are Neologisms markers of changes in societies?
Part 01: Literature Review
1.Definition of a Neologism
The term neologism originates from Greek: neos means ‘new’, logos means ‘word’, i. e. a neologism is – literally – a new word.
“Neologism is the creation of a new lexical item as a response to changed circumstances in the external world, which achieves some currency within a speech community”(qtd. in Chrystal 1992: 264) at a particular time.
In linguistics, a neologism is a newly invented word or phrase. It can be an old word or phrase used with a new meaning. The word “neologism” is a neologism itself, it was coined in 1800.
l. 2. Background of English Neologisms
The collection of dictionaries that contain neologisms started in 1604.The early Neologisms dictionarieswere: Table Alphabeticall (1604, Robert Cawdrey), English Expositor (1616, John Bullokar), and The English Dictionarie (1623, Henry Cockeram).Those dictionaries had some features of neologisms dictionaries but the true study of neologisms began in the 20 century, some 200 years later.
The first neologisms book is Word-Coinage, being an Inquiry
Into Recent Neologisms, also a Brief Study of Literary Style, Slang, and
Provincialisms by Leon Mead in 1902.It was not a real dictionaries, it contained a set of articles about new words.
In 1920, there was a remarkable progress in the research of new words with the book of C.Alphonso Smith entitled New Words Self-defined.it included 420 new words with examples.He wrote some articles entitled Words and Meanings, New.
. From 1937 to 1940, Dwight Bolinger ( Famous American Scholar) invented a column ,The Living Language, in the newspaper, Words.Later, it was changed into Among the New Words.In 1944, Professor I. Willis Russell became the editor of this column .
World War II was a major reason of the birth of new words .In 1944, Majorie Taylor collected the new words created during the War in a word-list entitled The Language of World War II: Abbreviation, captions, Quotations, Slogans, Titles and Other Terms and Phrases.At the same time, Clarence Barnhart printed his Dictionary of U.S. Army Terms.
After the World War II, science and technology development had greatly
effected the society. A lot of scientific and technical words were brought into language. A lot of neologism dictionaries about words in those fields were published. Two of them are mostly welcomed: An Explaining and Pronouncing Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Words by W. E. Flood & Michael West and Words of Sciences and the History Blind Them by Isaac Asimov.
From 1970s on, the study of English neologism drew great attention from
western scholars, many of them established special column to introduce new words in English, such as William Safire who was well known for his On Language in New York Times weekly and Anne H. Soukhanow who was the chief-editor of Word Watch.
In Safire’s column, he provided a considerably clear explanation of new words by citing typical examples, exploring their origins and performing their current usage.
The digital revolution in 1990s is the radical reshaping and restructuring of
social patterns. “Because of the wild spread of internet, America is speaking a whole new language”, said Shawn Holley in his The New Word Revolution. Lots of neologisms that have a historical significance by reason of the influence they exerted on the language field are brought into existence. According to the statistics, more than 20 neologism dictionaries have been compiled, among which some put emphasis on the academic field and some are distinctive by their popularity. Oxford English Dictionary, Webster’s Third New International Dictionary and Barhart Dictionary of New English are the ones with the highest academic value.
New words are numerous. Sometimes it seems as if a new word has about as
much chance of developing into a permanent addition to our vocabulary. Only few of them will remain as serious candidates for the dictionary. Books especially about new words are abundant. However, only a few scholars have ventured to propose factors that make for the success of new words. One is Goran Kjellmer, whose article “Potential Words” in the journal Word for August 2000 also reviews previous proposals. The other is the executive secretary of American Dialect Society, Allan Metcalf who proposed the FUDGE scale. The two reached different conclusions.
Along with books and periodicals, there is the Internet. In particular, it makes my extensive searches for examples of how words are actually used today possible. Here the author has searched thousands of pages indexed by Google.com countless times to find current uses of words under discussion.
A jump of several decades has showed us more researches on the neologisms.
Language reflects our life, and the research on the neologisms has never been stopped.
By collecting new words or phrases occurring in languages, the previous researches have provided precious materials for the further exploration in this field. Therefore, a careful look at the research background of neologisms carries an essential academic significance.
In china, the study of neologism began from 1980s. Most of the specific works
and papers are mere introduction of theories from abroad lacking of much original study. To keep up with the latest English vocabulary is really difficult, thus a thorough and systematic analysis about English new words is of practical significance both in learning and teaching of English as a foreign language.
Part 02: Factors for the Rise of English Neologisms
The resaons beyond the rise of new words are numouroes, some are internal causes or linguistic (phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexical or semantic) , others are external which , we will see in this part.
Mcmahon M.S (1994: 179-182) discusses causes of semantic change and describes the following:
Historical causes (subdivided into “ideas” and “scientific concepts”)
Psychological causes (subdivided into “emotive factors” and “taboo”)
The need for a new name
2.1. Sociolcultural Changes:
2.1.1. New ideas in Society and Culture.
Changes in social outlook and manners of behavior call for new terms such as beatnik, peacenik, and hippie. Even new culinary arrangements demand new labels and in English they have some forth in the form of cheeseburger, chiliburger, mushroomburger, etc.
(Anderson, 1973) Brian Foster presents us a striking example of how fast English vocabulary changes. In the year 1914, a young girl named Monica Baldwin entered a convent, remaining secluded there until 1941. When she returned to the outer world, she found herself in a totally different world: the conditions of everyday life altered by technical developments and social changes were beyond recognition. What’s more puzzling to her was the language people speaking. During a railway journey, the term “luggage in advance” meant nothing to her. Reading the daily newspapers made her feel idiotic in the extreme, because words like jazz, Gin, Hollywood, Cool, noshing and Isolationism were completely incomprehensible to her. Not to mention how bewildered she was at hearing friends say, “It’s your funeral” or “believe it or not”. (Brian Foster, 1981)
2.1.2. Disguising Language, “Misnomers”
Misnomers are words that replace taboo words or banned words.In order not to deceive the hearer, the taboo words are replaced to disguise their unpleaseant meaning.Examples: E. friendly fire instead of bombardment by own troops.
The superiority of a group or politics leads people to use some linguistic elements (words, morphemes, morphs, sounds) from the prestigious group.
Example: English, for instance, borrowed from French during the ME. period because the upper social classes were made up of French people:e.g. garment, flower, rose, face, prince, hour, question, dance, fork, royal, loyal, fine, zero are all Gallicisms. An other vivid example is English which is now the most prestigious language in many parts of the world.
2.1.4.Social, or Demographic, Reasons
Here, it means the contact between different social groups. As a result of this contact, new lexical items appear. In the history of the English language, the two prominent instances of exchanges between two social groups were the one with the Vikings in the 8th to 11th centuries and the one with the French in the 11th to 15th centuries.Examples: The inherited ey is replaced by Scandinavian egg, the inherited nimen is replaced by Scandinavian taken except for theform benumb, throwen is supplemented by Scandinavian casten; early French loans are army, carpenter, catch.
2.1.5.Culture-Induced Salience of a Concept (“Cultural Salience”)
The salience or the importance of concepts change with change of culture.
Example: In the US, a lot of metaphors in general language have been taken from the field of baseball, e.g. to be off base ‘to be completely wrong’, to hit a home run ‘to be highly successful’ and from the field of entrepreneurship.
The category of word play includes humor, irony and puns. Although word-play often goes hand in hand with other factors (such as taboo, prestige or anthropological salience), it can also trigger lexical change on its own. Example: to take French leave ‘to leave secretly (without paying)’, to cool ‘look’ (< look pronounced backwards, so-called back slang).
2.2 Technological Changes
New science leads to new words. Aristotle and Newton were neologists.They used new lexicon and new defintions to explain the theory of dynamics
Thus, there is no new knowledge without new terms or concepts.Generally a new invention or discovery holds the name of the inventor.
Sometimes some technical new words can be found in linguistics such as hypercorrection, allomorph, etc.
The word software for example, that computer term was invented by John
W. Tukey, a statistician at Princeton University. As long ago as 1958, he used the word in the American Mathematical Monthly. Today the “software” comprising the carefully planned interpretive routines, compilers, and other aspects of automotive programming are at least as important to the modern electronic calculator as its “hardware” of tubes, transistors, wires, tapes and the like. Tukey was already known for inventing another now- famous computer term.
2.3 Economic Changes
Economic field has a great impact on language.We are in a competition age.This leads to new brand names that want to find a place in the economy market.The success of the product causes the suceesss of its name.The owner of the product has to spend too much money to make the prdut well-known.This is done via advertisemnts to convice peole tp but it and name it as it was advertised.Its name will be a new word in the society.
The example of Coca-Cola Company is a good example.due to the geat success of Coke, people can ask for a coke yet they will be satisfied if they are given pepsi , i.e. the word Coke nowadays refers to a soft drink like a coke.
Some technical and medical brands find their way in general vocabulary.
ô€º€ Aspirin: a name for acetylsalicylic acid, trademarked by the Bayer Company of Germany at the start of the twentieth century.
ô€º€ Elevator and escalator: both originally trademarks of the Otis Elevator Company.
ô€º€ Zipper: a name given to a “separable fastener” by the B.F. Goodrich Company many years after it was invented. The new name helped the zipper attain popularity in the 1930s.
ô€º€ Loafer: for a moccasin-like shoe.
ô€º€ Cellophane: for a transparent wrap made of cellulose.
ô€º€ Granola: a trademark registered in 1886 by W K. Kellogg, now used for a
“natural” kind of breakfast cereal.
ô€º€ Ping-pong: for table tennis, a trademark registered by Parker Brothers in 1901.
ô€º€ Xerox: for photocopier.
ô€º€ Kleenex: for facial tissue.
ô€º€ Band-Aid: for adhesive bandage.
ô€º€ Tupperware: for storage container.
ô€º€ Scotch tape: for transparent adhesive tape.
ô€º€ Jazzercise: for exercise to jazz music.
2.4. Political Changes.
Some important political changes infulence vocabulary and give birth to new words and concepts. For instance, when Mr. Bill Clinton was elected as the president of the US. His name has been associated with many political words. His policy is Clintonian, he is carrying out the Clintionism, his economics policy is Clintonomics, and his supporters were called Clintonites, he ultimately wanted to realize his Clintonization.
Another recent political event that took place on Septembet the eleventh has brought a neologism in the American society.Because of the striking coincidence that 911 is the telephone number to call for help in an emergency, that numerical designation of this event has been a success. The events of that day have resulted in a new term: ground zero, for the place of impact, the center of destruction in New York City where the World Trade Towers once stood. That phrase has succeeded because it is not really new; it’s an old term for the location on the ground directly under a vast atomic explosion, corresponding to air zero, the location in the air above the ground where the bomb goes off. No one knows who first said ground zero in reference to the site where the World Trade Towers were attacked and collapsed, but the term immediately caught on because of its familiarity and emotional power.
Part 03: Success of English Neologisms
In the previous section, we have seen the reasons of the rise of the new words and how they become part of language.In this part; we will tackle the reasons that make a word successful or the reasons that make a word part of general language dictionary.
3.1 The occurrences
The frequency of the new word in a society makes it successful.If the neologisms appears in many various sources such newspapers, magazines and books, it will be included in general dictionaries and becomes a familiar word and no more neologism.This mean the the word becomes popular if it is cited in many sources
3.2 Variety among sources
A neologism in its first appearance is common for only a special field .Thus, it is found in technical dictionaries .Consequently , general dictioanries exclude technical terms .But there are some exceptions and some technical words find their place in general dictionaries due to their range in many sources.Example , the phrase intellectual property was limited to some branches .Nowadays, it is widely spead thanks to the new technologies and inventions in each field .
3.3 Cruciality in a given field
Sheidlower defines cruciality as “the need for a word to exist” (35). Let’s take the example of the acronym AIDS invented in 1982.This acronym is still the given name to this killing disease.It will hold the same name even if a cure is invented for this disease because of the importance and cruciality of this sickness, “its referent is a crucial matter in society” (qtd. in Sheidlower 35).
The word whirlpooling, though it is the only word used to describe such a behaviour, it is not included in a general dictionary because the phenomenon is rare and unusual , “rare and unusual phenomenon” (qtd. in Sheidlower 36).
3.4 Durability or Endurance ( Existance)
Each new word appears in a specific period of time.But if it has suffiecient evidence such as frequency of occurrences, range among sources, cruciality in a given field, it may be included in a general dictionary. New Deal is a good example here.So some neologisms refer to their time period, culture, policies and the like.
If a word wants to ‘stay alive’, it has to be admitted widely in public speech and used by mass media, and/or personalities, such as politicians, authors etc. (Barnhart 56). Depending on the editor and on what kind of dictionary a coinage should enter, one factor might be more of a value than another. Of the many thousands new words created each year, about 200 new words fulfill the above-mentioned conditions and make their way into a standard dictionary. Authors, TV, radio and news reporters use these new terms on a large scale, and thus they become vogue words for a certain period of time or even forever (Barnhart 56). But then the struggle of a new word is not over yet. If it is not used anymore or lost its importance, it will be deleted in the end (Sheidlower 38).
Practical considerations play their part in the march of a word into a dictionary. Chief among these is the scope of the dictionary and its physical limitations. Because general lexicography is a commercial art form, dictionaries reflect the judgment of their makers and the needs of their publishers. Consequently, no dictionary is complete.
There is a considerable difference between general dictionaries and ‘Among the New Words’. The dictionaries’ aim is to supplement the existing English vocabulary, whereas ‘Among the New Words’ aims to chronicle the development of the English language (Barnhart 59). For this reason, these criteria stated above (2.4.1 to 2.4.4) hardly apply to ‘Among the New Words’.